The Second World War proved to be more destructive than the Entire Human history.
- In order to bring the quarreling countries to talks and negotiate for peace countries like the USA, the USSR and the UK wanted a world forum.
- Although they had failed in their first experiment during the First World War yet they were firmly committed to peace.
- The result of their tireless effort was the birth of the United Nations Organization.
Foundation of the UNO
- After a series of conferences such as the Atlantic Charter, Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference finally in 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks in USA the creation of UNO was finalized.
- The Charter of the United Nations (U.N.) was signed by the representatives of fifty one nations at San Francisco on 26th June 1945.
- Delegates of fifty one countries after a long discussion, accepted the scheme and they published a U.N. Charter. On 24th October 1945, the United Nations came into being. The UN Headquarters is located in New York, USA.
Aims of the UNO
The fundamental aims of the U.N.O. as set forth in the Charter are :
- To maintain and preserve international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations and harmony among the countries.
- To grant equal rights and self-determination to all countries.
- To solve economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems through international cooperation.
- To promote respect for human rights, dignity and freedom.
- Not to intervene in the matters which are directly related with the domestic jurisdiction of any country.
The U.N.O. consists of six main bodies which are as follows :
- The General Assembly.
- The Security Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The Trusteeship Council.
- The International Court of Justice
- The Secretariat.
The General Assembly
- It is a deliberative body of the United Nations Organization. This body consistis of 5 representatives of each member state.
- But each member state has only one vote. The main function of this organ is to consider issues relating to international peace and security and to discuss important international problems.
- UNO has a Secretary General. The official languages of UNO are English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Arabic.
The Security Council
- It is the chief executive body of the U.N.O. It consists of 15 members – 5 permanent and 10 temporary.
- Russia, China, U.S.A., France and Great Britain are the permanent members of the Security Council of the U.N.O.
- Its main function is to preservepeace and security in the world. It can take diplomatic and economic steps against those nations who violate the constitution of the U.N.O.
- Each of the five permanent members has a powerful vote known as veto.
The Economic and Social Council
- This council is composed of 18 members (there are 27 members at present).
- All members of this council are elected by the General Assembly. It is directly responsible to the General Assembly.
- The fundamental principle of this body is to create a spirit of universal respect for human rights and to promote a higher cultural educational standard.
- Its function is to raise the standard of living of the people, to assure them employment.
- The UNO believes that world peace could be maintained only when the people enjoy a high economic and social standard of living.
- The Social and Economic Council works through the cooperation of several special committees and commissions.
- Such as, The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O.), International Labour Organization (I.L.O.), International Bank, World Health Organization (W.H.O.) etc. This organ has rendered undoubtedly great services to the mankind since 1945.
The Trusteeship Council
- This Council is composed of the representatives of permanent members of the Security Council, representatives of all those states which hold the administration of colonies and some other representatives elected by the General Assembly.
- The main function of the Trusteeship Council is to preserve the interests of the territories handed over to it and to help the General Assembly in the administration of those countries over which the U.N.O. holds Trusteeship.
The International Court of Justice
- It is the judicial organ of the U.N.O. It has its headquarters at The Hague (Netherlands).
- It is composed of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for 9 years.
- Its main function is to solve the legal disputes of the member states of UNO.
- It consists of the working staff of the U.N.O. The chief of the Secretariat is called the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
- The main function of this body is to assist all bodies of the U.N.O.
Achievements of the U N O
- From the very beginning, the United Nations Organization had to deal with a large number of conflicts and problems in the international field.
- The Security Council of the U.N.O. made several efforts to solve those problems.
- But the efforts of the Security Council had been greatly hampered by the free use of the veto power.
- During the year 1946-47, Russia exercised the right of veto on 22 occasions.
- UNO assisted the colonized countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America to attain their independence from the colonial masters.
- This process is known as decolonization. After the establishment of UNO the process of decolonization was quickly achieved.
Maintenance of Peace
- The main function of UNO had been the maintenance of peace in the world. UNO achieved peace in the following conflict situations.
The Problem of Iran
- On 1st January 1946, Iran presented a complaint against Russia before the U.N.O.
- The root cause of the conflict was stationing of Russian troops in Iran.
- U.N.O. took a very strong line as a consequence of this, the Russian troops were withdrawn from Iran, which had been stationed there for many years.
- This was the first and the most important achievement of the U.N.O.
Syria and Lebanon
- Similar complaint was also made by Syria and Lebanon before the U.N.O.
- Both of them requested the U.N.O. that British and French troops should be immediately removed from their respective states.
- The Security Council, therefore, made its efforts and at last it succeeded in securing the withdrawal of British and French troops from those states.
- After the end of the Second World War, the nationalists living in Indonesia established a republican government.
- But the Dutch living in the colonies of Java and Sumatra rose in rebellion against the nationalists.
- The Security Council issued a cease-fire order to both sides. The Dutch agreed to grant full independence to Indonesia.
The Palestine Problem
- After the end of the First World War, Palestine had been handed over to Great Britain under the mandate system.
- But the struggle arose between the Arabs and the Jews which created disturbance and tension in Palestine.
- After the Second World War U.N.O. appointed a special committee to study the problem of Palestine.
- The Committee recommended immediate partition of Palestine into three parts – an Arab State, a Jewish State and the City of Jerusalem which was to be governed by the Trusteeship Council of the U.N.O.
- Thus, an independent state of Israel was established for the Jews in 1948. The Arabs bitterly opposed the plan of the partition of Palestine.
- They rose in revolt against the Jews. Consequently, a civil war broke out in Palestine between the Arab League and the newly established Israel.
- The UNO took effective steps to diffuse the tension in Palestine.
The Kashmir Problem
- This problem arose between India and Pakistan. Both of them fell into a state of great rivalry on this issue.
- This problem was brought to the notice of the U.N.O. It made its best efforts to remove hostility and differences between them.
- As a result of its mediation, the war was stopped between India and Pakistan. But this problem could not be solved permanently. It still awaits a peaceful and permanent solution.
The Problem of Korea
- Before the beginning of the Second World War, the whole of Korea was under the control of Japan.
- After the Second World War, Russia and America decided to divide Korea on the 38th parallel line.
- On 24th June 1950 the army of the North Korea made a fierce attack over South Korea.
- The matter was again brought before the U.N.O. Hence, the Security Council decided to take some strong steps against North Korea.
- UNO sent its army under the command of an American, General Douglas MacArthur. A treaty was signed on July 27, 1953 by which the U.N.O. withdrew its military action.
Other Important Problems
- UNO tried to bring peaceful conclusion of many other problems such as Suez Crisis , Cyprus issue , Congo problem , Gulf War .
- Besides, UNO was concerned about arms control and disarmament, particularly the nuclear disarmament and control of nuclear weapons.
- UNO has achieved considerable success in non-political matters.
- Such as ending racial discrimination [called Apartheid] in South Africa, protecting human rights and providing financial assistance to many developing countries from World Bank, IDA and IMF.
- The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity.
UNO was successful in its main objectives, in spite of difficulties and set backs.