- Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazni Malik.
- Ghazni Malik ascended the throne assuming the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
- Founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty.
- First Sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or slayer of the infidels.
- Organised better postal system & Encouraged agriculture
- Died in an accident but Ibn Batuta, the Moroccon traveller, opined that his death was due to destruction arranged by his son, Jauna Khan.
- Real name was Jauna Khan & Known as wisest fool king.
- Knew Arabic and Persian languages & also expert in philosophy, astronomy, logic , mathematics & Calligraphy.
- Built the fortress of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah.
- Ibn Batuta came to Delhi during 1334 & acted as the Quazi of the capital for 8 years.
- He tried to introduce many administrative reforms. He had 5 ambitious projects for which he has became particulary debatable.
1.Taxation in the Doab (1326)
2.Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad)(1327)
3.Introduction of Token Currency (1329)
4.Khurasan Expedition (1329)
5.Qarachi Expedition (1330)
- His last days were spent in checking the revolts
- In 1335 Mudurai became independent (Jalaluddin Ahsan Shah)
- In 1336 Foundation of Vijayanagar (Harihara & Bukka raya),
- In 1341-47 Warrangal became independent (Kanhaiya) Revolts of Sada Amirs
- In 1347 Foundation of Bahamani (Hasan Gangu)
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD)
- Establishment of Diwan-i-Khairat(department for poor and needy people) and Diwan-i-Bundagan(department of slaves).
- Making Iqtadari system hereditary.
- Construction of canals for irrigation from
- Yamuna to the city of Hissar
- From the Sutlej to the Ghaggar
- From the Ghaggar to Firuzabad
- From Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
- Establishment of four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
- Imposition of Jaziya on the Brahmans for the first time
- Establishment in Delhi a hospital described variously as Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan or Shifa Khana.
Imposed some new taxes :
Kharaj : a land tax equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land (by Hindus only).
Jiziya : a tax by non muslims (even by brahmins).
Zakat : Tax on property (2.5%) (by Muslims only).
Khams : one fifth of booty captured in war.
- Took steps to translate Hindu religious texts & Sanskrit books on music into Persian.
- Set up hospitals, dug a number of canals, dams, mosques.
- Built his capital Firozabad and to beautify it, brought 2 Ashoka Pillars, one from Topara in Ambala & the other from Meerut.
- Wrote a book ‘Fatuhat Firozshahi’.
- Gained ill fame for temple breaking and Mathura was destroyed during his period.
- Also introduced 2 new coins Adha (50% jital) and bikh (25% jital).
Timur Invasion (1398-99)
Timur, a Turk, invaded India in 1398 during the reign of Muhammad Shah Tughlaq , the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty.
His army mercilessly despoiled and looted Dellhi.
Timur returned to Central Asia, leaving a nominee to rule to Punjab which ended the Tughlaq dynasty.