Socio-religious reform movements in muslims, Parsis & Sikhs

Muslim Reform Movements

ReformAligarh Movement

  • Founded by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
  • Started for the social and educational advancement of muslims in India.
  • Other prominent members of the movement were Altaf Hussain Hali, Dr. Nazir Ahmed, Nawab Mushin-ul-Mulk, Chirag Ali, etc.
  • Established 2 madarasas at Muradapur & Gazipur.
  • In 1870 published Tahzib ul Akhalaq & Asbad-i-Bhagvati.
  • Condemned the system of Piri and Muridi.
  • In 1866, he started the Mohammadan Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Muslims.
  • In 1875, he founded a modern school at Aligarh to promote English education among the Muslims & later it grown into the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College & then into the Aligarh Muslim University.

Deoband Movement

  • The orthodox section among the Muslim Ulema organised the Deoband movement which began after the foundation of the Dar-ul-Ulum at Deoband in 1866 by Maulana Hussain Ahmad and others with the aim of resuscitating classical Islam and improving the spiritual and moral conditions of the muslims.
  • It was a revivalist movement where objectives were to propagate among the Muslims, the pure teachings of the Quran and the Hadis and to keep alive the spirit of Jihad against the foreign rulers.
  • The ulema under the leadership of Mohammad Qasim Wanotavi and Rashid Ahmad Gangohi founded the school of Deoband in the Saharanpur district of UP in 1866.
  • The school curriculum shut out English education.
  • Deoband school welcomed the formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
  • In 1888 Deoband ulema issued a religious decree against Syed Ahmad Khan’s organisations.

Deoband School

  • Orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Movement.
  • Ulema under the leadership of Mohammad Qasim Wanotavi & Rashid Ahmad Gangohi founded the school of Deoband in the Saharanpur district of UP in 1866.
  • School curriculum shut out English education.
  • Welcomed the formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885.
  • In 1888 Deoband ulema issued a religious decree against Syed Ahmad Khan’s organisations.

Objectives:

(i) to propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran & the Hadis

(ii) to keep alive the spirit of jihad aganist the foreign rulers.

Ahrar Movement

  • Founded in 1910 under the leadership of Maulana Muhammad Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasan Imam, Maulana Zafar Ali Khar & Mazhar-ul-Haq in opposition to the loyalist policies of the Aligarh movement.
  • Moved by modern ideas of self-government its members advocated active participation in the nationalist movement.

Ahmadia Movement

  • Also known as the Qadiani movement & founded by Mirza Gulam Ahmad at Qadiani in Punjab.
  • Objective of reforming Islam & defending it against the onslaught of Christian missionaries & the Arya Samajists.
  • Gave religious recognition to modern industrial & technological progress.

reformParsi Reform Movement

  • The Parsi Religious Reform Association was founded at Bombay by Furdunji Naoroji & S.S. Bengalee in 1851. Advocated the spread of women’s education.
  • Criticized elaborate ceremonies at betrothals, marriages & funerals
  • Opposed infant marriage & the use of astrology.
  • Furdunji published a monthly journal, Jagat Mithra.
  • In this background, Furdunji edited in 1840s the Fam-i-Famshid, a journal aimed at defending the cause of Zoroastrianism.

Sikh Reform Movements

Nirankaris Movement

  • Founded by Baba Dayal Das.
  • He called for the return of Sikhism to its origin & emphasized the worship of one God & nirankar (formless).
  • Rejected idolatry & also prohibited eating meat, drinking liquor, lying, cheating, etc.
  • Laid emphasis on Guru Nanak & on Sikhism before the establishment of Khalsa by Guru Gobind Sing at Anandpur and this separated them from the Namdaris.

Namdharis Movement

  • Founded by Baba Ram Singh in 1857.
  • Set of rituals modeled after Guru Gobind Singh’s founding of the Khalsa with the requirement of wearing the five symbols but instead of the sword the followers were supposed to carry a stick.
  • Made consumption of beef was strictly forbidden as protection of cattle was important.
  • In 1873 the Singh Sabha Movement was founded at Amritsar.

Akali Movement

  • Main aim to purify the management of the Sikh Gurudwaras or shrines by removing the corrupt priests.
  • Enactment of the new Sikh Gurudwara Act by the British in 1925.
  • Removed corrupt priests through the act and also through the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee (SPGC).

Kuka Movement

  • founded by Bagat Jawaharmal, popularly known as Sian Sahib.
  • Started with the aim of Sikh reform & restoration of Sikh sovereignty in Punjab by driving the British away.
  • Kukas recognised Guru Govind Singh as the only true Guru of the Sikhs.

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