In fact, three dynasties were established during this period. They were
- Qutbi dynasty (1206-1211) founded by Qutbuddin Aibak.
- First Ilbari dynasty (1211- 1266) founded by Iltutmish.
- Second Ilbari dynasty (1266-1290) founded by Balban.
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210)
- After the death of Ghori, Aibek became the master of Hindustan and founded the Slave dynasty in 1206.
- For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh (giver of Lakhs)
- Asumed the title Sultan and made Lahore his capital & ruled for 4 years.
- Constructed 2 mosques-Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi and Adhai din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer.
- Started the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honour of Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhityar Kaki.
- Patronised writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of ‘Taj-ul-Massir’ & Fakhruddin, author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shah’.
- Died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.
Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-1236)
- Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe and hence his dynasty was named as Ilbari dynasty. .
- He saved Delhi Sultanate from the anger of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refuing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz was chasing.
- He organised the lqta System and introduced reforms in civil administration and army, which was now centrally paid and recruited.
- Organisation of a group of 40 loyal nobles-Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa or Forty
- He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibak
- He patronised Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of ‘Tabaqat-i-Nasiri’.
- Completed the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi.
- Introduction of the silver coins called tanka and copper coins called jitals.
- She was the first and last Muslim ruler of India”.
- She appointed an Abyssinian slave Yakuth as Master of the Royal Horses.
- Also, Raziya discarded the female apparel and held the court with her face unveiled.
- These 2 things made provoked to the nobles & muslim rulers.
- In 1240, Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda revolted against her.
- She went to suppress the revolt but Altunia killed Yakuth & married Raziya.
- In 1240 AD, Razia was assassinated near Kaithal.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (1246-1287)
- Also known as Ulugh Khan, served as regent to Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud.
- His greatest contribution was broking the power of Chalisa.
- To keep himself well-informed Balban appointed spies.
- Declared that the Sultan was the representative of God.
- Introduction of the practice of sijda (people would kneel and touch the ground with their head to great the Sultan) and pabos.
- He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz.
Royal instruction to the ulemas to limit themselves to religious affairs.