Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290) : Aibak to Balban

  • Slave dynasty also called as Mamluk & Ghulam dynsaty.

  • Ruled Delhi from 1206 to 1290.slave

In fact, three dynasties were established during this period. They were

  1. Qutbi dynasty (1206-1211) founded by Qutbuddin Aibak.
  2. First Ilbari dynasty (1211- 1266) founded by Iltutmish.
  3. Second Ilbari dynasty (1266-1290) founded by Balban.

Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210)

  • After the death of Ghori, Aibek became the master of Hindustan and founded the Slave dynasty in 1206.
  • For his generosity, he was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh (giver of Lakhs)
  • Asumed the title Sultan and made Lahore his capital & ruled for 4 years.
  • Constructed 2 mosques-Quwat-ul-Islam at Delhi and Adhai din ka Jhonpra at Ajmer.
  • Started the construction of Qutub Minar, in the honour of Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhityar Kaki.
  • Patronised writers like Hasan-un-Nizami, author of ‘Taj-ul-Massir’ & Fakhruddin, author of ‘Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shah’.
  • Died in 1210 while playing Chaugan or Polo.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-1236)

  • Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe and hence his dynasty was named as Ilbari dynasty. .
  • He saved Delhi Sultanate from the anger of Chengiz Khan, the Mongol leader, by refuing shelter to Khwarizm Shah, whom Chengiz was chasing.
  • He organised the lqta System and introduced reforms in civil administration and army, which was now centrally paid and recruited.
  • Organisation of a group of 40 loyal nobles-Turkan-i-Chahalgani or Chalisa or Forty
  • He completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Aibak
  • He patronised Minhaj-us-Siraj, author of ‘Tabaqat-i-Nasiri’.
  • Completed the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi.
  • Introduction of the silver coins called tanka and copper coins called jitals.

Raziya (1236-1240)

  • She was the first and last Muslim ruler of India”.
  • She appointed an Abyssinian slave Yakuth as Master of the Royal Horses.
  • Also, Raziya discarded the female apparel and held the court with her face unveiled.
  • These 2 things made provoked to the nobles & muslim rulers.
  • In 1240, Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda revolted against her.
  • She went to suppress the revolt but Altunia killed Yakuth & married Raziya.
  • In 1240 AD, Razia was assassinated near Kaithal.

Ghiyasuddin Balban (1246-1287)

  • Also known as Ulugh Khan, served as regent to Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud.
  • His greatest contribution was broking the power of Chalisa.
  • To keep himself well-informed Balban appointed spies.
  • Declared that the Sultan was the representative of God.
  • Introduction of the practice of sijda (people would kneel and touch the ground with their head to great the Sultan) and pabos.
  • He established the military department Diwani-i-Arz.
  • Royal instruction to the ulemas to limit themselves to religious affairs.

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