Revolutionary Terrorist Movements for Indian Independance

  • Influenced by extremists in the national politics.
  • Revolutionaries wanted quicker results & discounted the value of moderates & low-grade pressure.
  • Believed that the British rule was destructive for political liberties, religious freedom, morality & Indian culture.
  • Common aim was freedom from the British rule.

Revolutionary activities in Maharashtra

  • On June 22, 1897, Damodar Chapekar & Balkrishna Chapekar- famous as “Chapekar Brothers” assissinated 2 British officials named Rand & Ayerst at Poona.
  • They were disillusioned with the British administration for its indifferent attitude towards plague at Pune.
  • In 1899, V.D. Savarkar & his brother Ganesh Savarkar organised a secret society Mitramela.
  • In 1904, V.D. Savarkar organised the Abhinava Bharat, a secret society of revolutionaries.
  • In 1909, Anant Kanhare, and activities staff Abhinava Bharat, assissinated Jackson, the judge of Nasik, Jacson had sentenced Ganesh Savarkar to deportation to Andaman on the charge of sedition.

Revolutionary activities in Bengal

  • In 1902, Pramatho Mitra, Jatindranath Banerjee & Barindra kumar Ghosh founded the “Anushilan Samiti” a secret society & promoting revolutionary activities.
  • Decca Anushilan Samiti” was founded by Pulin Das in East Bengal.
  • Apart from Decca Anushilan Samiti, there were 4 other prominent samities in Mymensingh, Faridpur, Bakargunj & Burisal in East Bengal.
  • In 1905, Barindra Kumar ghosh published Bhavani Mandir.
  • In 1906, Barindra Kumar ghosh & Bhupendranath Dutta started the paper “Yugantar”.
  • On Dec 23, 1907, the revolutionaries shot the magistrate of Dacca at the Faridpur railway station.
  • In April 1908, Khudiram Bose & Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at a carriage which they believed was occupied by Kingsford, the unpopular judge of Muzzaffarpur.
  • Kudiram was hanged, while Prafulla Chaki shot himself dead.

Revolutionary activities in Punjab & Delhi

  • In 1904, J.M. Chaterjee set up an organisation with Lala Hardayal & Sufi Amba Prasad to spread revolutionary activities in Punjab.
  • After his release from jail in 1907, Sardar Ajit Singh began establishing revolutionary outfits in many places.
  • In Nov 1908, the deputy superintendent of police of Layalpur & his orderly were assassinated. It was perhaps the first political incident of its kind in Punjab.
  • In Dec 1909, a bomb was exploded in the house of the deputy collector of Ambala.
  • On Dec 23, 1912 Rash Behari Bose & Sachin Sanyal threw bomb on Viceroy Lord Haringe II who was leading a procession in Delhi to celebrate the occassion of the city becoming the new capital of India.
  • Fortunately Lord Hardinge escaped with minor injuries but his attendant died on the spot.
  • 13 people were arrested & tried in what is known as Delhi Conspiracy Case.
  • Dina Nath, on of the arrested, became government approver under pressure. 4 persons Master Amir Chand, Awadh Bihar, Bal Mukund and Basant Kumar Biswas were hanged. Rash Behari Bose succedded in fleeing to Japan.

Revolutionary activities from Europe

  • Revolutionaries also established centres of activity abroad.
  • In London the lead was taken by Shyamaji Krishnavarma, V.D Savarkar & Har Dayal.
  • In 1905, Krishnavarma setup the “India Home Rule Society” popularly known as the “India House”.
  • On July 1, 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra shot the Assistant of the Secretary fo State Curzon Wyllie in London. Later Dhingra was sentenced to death on August 16, 1909.

RevolutionaryHindustan Socialist Republican Association

  • Established in October 1924 in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil,Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad, Yogendra Shukla and Sachindranath Sanyal.
  • The aim of the party was to organise armed revolution to end the colonial rule & establish a Federal Republic of the United States of India.
  • The Kakori train robbery was a notable act of mutiny by this group.
  • The Kakori case led to the hanging of Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Lahiri.
  • The Kakori case was a major setback for the group. However, the group was soon reorganised under the leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad and with members like Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev on 9 and 10 September 1928 & the group was now christened Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
  • In Lahore on 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad and Rajguru assassinated Saunders, a police official involved in deadly lathi-charge on Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly.
  • The Assembly Bomb Case trial followed. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru were hanged on 23 March 1931.
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