Rashtrakutas (755 – 975 A.D.) : Socio – Economic & Political condtoins

  • They were Kannada origin and their mother tongue was Kannada.

  • Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty.

  • Amoghavarsha I (815- 880 A.D.) converted to Jainism. Under Jinasena.

  • He wrote the famous Kannada work, Kavirajamarga.

  • He had also built the Rashtrakutas capital, the city of Malkhed or Manyakheda.

  • Kailasanath Temple at Ellora was founded by the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I.

  • Krishna III was the last ruler & after his death, the power of the Rashtrakutas declined.Rashtrakutas

Administration under Rashtrakutas 

  • Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of rashtrapatis.

  • Again Rashtras divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis.

  • Next subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the controlof bhogapatis.

  • Village administration was carried on by the village headmen.

  • Village assemblies played a significant role in the village administration.

Other facts
  • Vaishnavism and Saivism flourished during the period of Rashtrakutas.

  • There was an active commerce between the Deccan and the Arabs.

  • They promoted the Arab trade by maintaining friendship with them.

Literature under Rashtrakutas

  • They widely patronized the Sanskrit literature.

  • Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu .

  • Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III.

  • Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses.

  • Gunabhadra wrote the Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints.

  • Sakatayana wrote the grammer work called Amogavritti.

  • Great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author of Ganitasaram.

  • The Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the Rashtrakutas.

  • Amogavarsha’s Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language.

  • Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was Vikramasenavijaya.

  • Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana.

Art and Architecture

  • The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas were found at Ellora and Elephanta.

  • At Ellora, the most remarkable temple is the Kailasanatha temple built by Krishna I.Rashtrakutas kailasanatha temple

Kailasanatha temple
  • It is carved out of a massive block of rock 200 feet long, and 100 feet in breadth and height.

  • The central face of the plinth has imposing figures of elephants and lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back.

  • It has a three-tiered sikhara or tower resembling the sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas.

  • In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall which has sixteen square pillars.

  • The sculpture of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon.

  • In another sculpture Ravana was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva.rashtrakutas durga goddess

Elephanta
  • It is an island near Bombay originally called Sripuri.

  • The Portuguese after seeing the large figure of an elephant named it Elephanta.

  • There is a close similarity between the sculptures at Ellora and those in Elephanta.

  • At the entrance to the sanctum there are huge figures of dwara-palakas.

  • The most imposing figure of this temple is Trimurthi. The sculpture is six metre high. It is said to represent the three aspects of Shiva as Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.

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