Advaita, Vishistadvaita, Sivadvaita, Dvaita, Dvaitadvaita & Suddhadvaita

  • The major religious movements were brought about by the mystics.
  • They contributed to the religious ideas and beliefs.
  • Bhakti saints like Vallabhacharya, Ramanuja, Nimbaraka brought about new philosophical thinking which had its origin in Shankaracharya’s advaita (non-dualism) philosophy.

advaita1.Advaita of shankaracharya

  • Shankaracharya’s discourse or his philosophical views came to be known as “Advaita Vedanta”.
  • Advaita literally means non-dualism or belief in one reality.
  • He expounded that ultimate reality is one, it being the Brahman.
  • According to Vedanta philosophy, ‘Brahman is true, the world is false and self.
  • Brahman are not different, Shankaracharya believes that the Brahman is existent, unchanging, the highest truth and the ultimate knowledge.
  • He also believes that there is no distinction between Brahman and the self.
  • The knowledge of Brahman is the essence of all things and the ultimate existence.

“I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world tolerance and universal acceptance .. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true.” – Swami Vivekananda at Parliament of world Religions in Chicago 1893.

2.Vishistadvaita of Ramanujacharya

  • Vïshistadvaita means modified monism.
  • The ultimate reality according to this philosophy is Brahman (God) and matter and soul are his qualities.
3.Sivadvaita of Srikanthacharya
  • According to this philosophy the ultimate Brahman is Shiva, endowed with Shakti. 
  • Shiva exists in this world as well as beyond it.
4.Dvaita of Madhavacharya
  • The literal meaning of dvaita is dualism which stands in opposition to non-dualism and monism of Shankaracharya.
  • He believed that the world is not an illusion (maya) but a reality full of differences.
5.Dvaitadvaita of Nimbaraka
  • Dvaitadvaita means dualistic monism.
  • According to this philosophy God transformed himself into world and soul.
  • This world and soul are different from God (Brahman).
  • They could survive with the support of God only.
  • They are separate but dependent.
6.Suddhadvaita of Vallabhacharya
  • Vallabhacharya wrote commentaries on Vedanta Sutra and Bhagavad Gita.
  • For him Brahman (God) was Sri Krishna who manifested himself as souls and matter.
  • God and soul are not distinct, but one.
  • The stress was on pure non-dualism.
  • His philosophy came to be known as Pushtimarga (the path of grace) and the school was called Rudrasampradaya.
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