Petroleum has often been called “liquid gold” because of its value in our modern civilization.
Our agriculture, industry and transport system depend on petroleum in several ways.
Petrol, kerosene, diesel, detergents, synthetic fibres, plastics, cosmetics etc. are important products derived from petroleum.
In India, it is found in the sedimentary rock formation. Most of such areas lie in the Assam, Gujarat and off shore areas along the western coast.
The entire production of India till today comes from the Assam belt, Gujarat- Cambay belt and Bombay High.
The mineral oil resources of India are distributed in three important basins.
1. Upper Assam: major oil wells in this region are Digboi, Naharkatia, Moran, Lakwa, Sibs agar and Rudrasagar.
2. Bombay High is an offshore source, lying 167 km to the north-west of Mumbai.
3. Cambay Basin lies in the state of Gujarat and major oil-wells are Ankaleshwar, Kosamba, Kalol, Dhalka, Mahesana, Nawagam and Sobhasan.
There are certain areas with known reserves of mineral oil, but where commercial production is not carried out.
2. Cauveri basin
3. Krishna – Godavari basin
4. Andaman Islands
5. Foothills of Bengal Himalayas
6. Ganga valley
7. Tripura – Nagaland fold belt.
There are some prospective regions, where the geological structure favours the presence of oil reserves.
1. Kachchh-Saurashtra region in Gujarat
2. Kerala – Konkan region
3. Mahanadi basin.
Some recently discovered oil – fields
1. South Heera, Neelam, Gandhar Phase II, Panna and Mukta in the Bombay High basin
2. Ravva oil field in the offshore of Krishna – Godavari basin.
3. Cauveri basin
4. Arunachal Pradesh