Performing art – drama/ folk dance/theatre

Performing art – drama/ folk dance

1. Bhand pather – Kashmir

  • Unique combination of dance, music and acting.
  • Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter.
  • Music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
  • Since the actors are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is noticable.

2. Swang – Haryana

  • Mainly music-based.
  • Gradually, prose too, played its role in the dialogues.
  • Softness of emotions, accomplishment of rasa along with the
  • Development of character can be seen two important styles are from rohtak & haathras. in the style belonging to rohtak, the language used is haryanvi (bangru) and in haathras, it is brajbhasha.

3. Nautanki Uttar pradesh

  • Most popular centres – kanpur, lucknow and haathras.
  • The meters used in the verses are: doha, chaubola, chhappai, Behar-e-tabeel.
  • Nowadays, women have also started taking part

4. Raasleela

  • Based exclusively on lord krishna legends
  • Believed that nand das wrote the initial plays based on the life Of krishna.
  • Dialogues in prose combined beautifully with songs and scenes from krishna’s pranks.

5. Bhavai – Gujarat

  • Main centers of – kutch and kathiawar.
  • Instruments used are: bhungal, tabla, flute, pakhaawaj, rabaab, Sarangi, manjeera, etc.
  • There is a rare synthesis of devotional and romantic sentiments.

6. Jatra – Bengal

  • Fairs in honour of gods, or religious rituals and ceremonies have
  • Within their framework musical plays are known as jatra.
  • Krishna jatra became popular due to chaitanya prabhu’s Influence.
  • Earlier form of jatra has been musical & dialogues were added at Later stage.
  • The actors themselves describe the change of scene, the place of Action, etc.

7. Bhaona (ankia naat) – Assam.

  • Cultural glimpses of assam, bengal orissa, mathura and brindavan Can be seen.
  • The sutradhaar, or narrator begins the story, first in sanskrit and Then in either Brajboli or Assamese.

8. Maach – Madhya pradesh

  • Maach is used for the stage itself as also for the play.
  • Songs are given prominence in between the dialogues.
  • The term for dialogue in this form is bol and rhyme in narration is Termed vanag.
  • The tunes of this theatre form are known as rangat.

9. Tamaasha – Maharashtra

  • Evolved from the folk forms such as gondhal, jagran and kirtan.
  • Female actress is the chief exponent of dance movements in the play & She is known as murki.
  • Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and vivid gestures
  • Make it possible to portray all the emotions through dance.

10. Dashavatar – Konkan & Goa

  • Personify the ten incarnations of lord vishnu-the god of Preservation and creativity.
  • The ten incarnations are matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), varaha (boar), narsimha (lion-man), vaman (dwarf), parashuram, rama, krishna (or balram), buddha and kalki.
  • Apart from stylized make-up, the dashavatar performers wear masks of wood and papier mache.

11. Krishnattam – Kerala

  • Came into existence in the middle of 17th century a.d. under the patronage of king manavada of calicut.
  • Krishnattam is a cycle of eight plays performed for eight consecutive days.
  • The plays are avataram, kaliamandana, rasa krida, kamasavadha, Swayamvaram, bana yudham, vivida vadham, and swargarohana.
  • Episodes are based on the theme of lord krishna – his birth, childhood pranks and various deeds depicting victory of good over evil.

12. Mudiyettu – Kerala

  • Celebrated in the month of vrischikam (november-december). performed only in the kali temples of kerala, as an oblation to the goddess.
  • Depicts the triumph of goddess bhadrakali over the asura darika.
  • Seven characters in mudiyettu-shiva, narada, darika, danavendra, Bhadrakali, kooli and koimbidar (nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up.

13. Theyyam kerala

  • ‘Theyyam’ derived from the sanskrit word ‘daivam’ meaning god.
  • Hence it is called god’s dance.
  • Performed by various castes to appease and worship spirits.
  • Distinguishing features – colourful costume and awe-inspiring headgears (mudi) nearly 5 to 6 feet high made of arecanut splices, bamboos, leaf sheaths of arecanut & wooden planks and dyed into different strong colours using turmeric, wax and

14. Koodiyaattam kerala

  • Based on Sanskrit theatre traditions.

Characters of this theatre form are:

  • Chakyaar or actor,
  • Naambiyaar, the instrumentalists and
  • Naangyaar, those taking on women’s roles.
  • The sutradhar or narrator and the vidushak or jesters are the protagonists.
  • Vidushak alone delivers the dialogues.
  • Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique.

15. Yakshagaana – Karnataka

  • Based on mythological stories and puranas.
  • Most popular episodes are from the mahabharata i.e. Draupadi swayamvar, subhadra vivah, abhimanyu vadh, karna-arjun yuddh and from ramayana i.e. Raajyaabhishek, lav-kush yuddh, baali- sugreeva yuddha and panchavati.

16. Therukoothu – Tamil nadu

  • Literally means “street play”.
  • Mostly performed at the time of annual temple festivals of mariamman (rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest.
  • There is a cycle of eight plays based on the life of draupadi.
  • Kattiakaran, the sutradhara gives the gist of the play to the audience
  • Komali entertains the audience with his buffoonery.

17. Karyala- Himachal pradesh

  • Deals with serious question of life & death briefly and with simplicity of expression & diction, all enveloped in humor.
  • Indeed, audience is given essence of our cultural heritage of viewing the world as a stage and as an unsubstantial pageant which is to be negotiated and lived by rising above it.
  • There is often stylistic diversity, which strengthens their identity from swang, nautanki, bhagat, etc..

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