Non-metallic minerals in India: Asbestos – Magnesite – Kyanite – Gypsum – Sillimanite


  • Great commercial value due to its fibrous structure, and its resistance to fire.

  • Used for making fire-proof clothes, rope, paper, sheeting, belt, fireproof safes etc..

  • Asbestos cement products like sheets, slates, pipes and tiles are used for building purposes.

  • Mixed with magnesia, it is used for making ‘magnesia bricks’ used for heat insulation.

  • Rajasthan is the leading producer accounting for about 95 % of the total asbestos production of India.

  • Mined in Ajmer, Alwar, Dungarpur, Pali and Udaipur districts. Andhra Pradesh is the second largest producer.

  • It is produced in Cuddapah District. It is also mined in Karnataka, harkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, and Nagaland.


  • Used for manufacturing refractory bricks, special type of cement, tiles, fire-proof flooring and for extraction of the metal magnesium, and in steel industry.

  • Its major deposits are found in Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan.

  • Found in Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, and Kerala.

  • Tamil Nadu is the largest producer accounting for over 74 % of the total magnesite production, followed by Uttarakhand (20 %) and Karnataka (6 %).


  • Found in the metamorphic rocks, kyanite is used in metallurgical, ceramic, refractory, glass and electrical industries.

  • India is the largest producer of kyanite in the world.

  • Located in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.

  • These 3¬†states contribute almost the whole production of kyanite of the country.


  • A hydrated sulphate of calcium which occurs as a white opaque mineral in beds of bands of sedimentary rocks like limestone, sandstone and shale.

  • Used in making ammonia sulphate, fertilisers and in cement industry.

  • Rajasthan is the leading producer of gypsum accounting for about 99 % of the total production of the country.

  • Obtained mainly from the districts of Barmer, Bikaner, Chumanganagar, Jaisalmer, jodhpur, Nagaur, and Pali.

  • The remaining one % is mined in Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, and

  • Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh.

  • The total reserves of gypsum in India were estimated to be about 1237 million tonnes (India 2010)


  • Used is ceramics, metallurgy, glass, refractory, automobiles and cement manufacturing industries.

  • Its main characteristic is that it can withstand high temperatures.

  • Orissa, contributing about 57 % of the total production, is the largest producer of¬†sillimanite in India.

  • Kerala is the second largest producer accounting for about 33 % of the total production.

  • Produced in Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Assam (Karbi-Anglong), Madhya Pradesh, (Sidhi), West Bengal (Darjeeling, Bankura and Purulia), and Tamil Nadu (Kanniyakumari, Tirunelveli, and Tiruchirappalli).

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