Mughal architecture of Babur
Mughal architecture of Humayun
- Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi.
- Built Jamali Mosque & the Mosque of Isa Khan at Delhi.
- His tomb is called the ‘prototype of Taj Mahal’ & was built by his widow Haji Begum.
Mughal architecture of Akbar
- Used mostly red sandstone.
- Built Agra fort.
- Also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near Agra.
- Buildings at Fatehpur Sikri blended both Islamic and Hindu elements in their architectural style.
- In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai’s palace & Sheikh Salim Chishti’s tomb.
- Diwan-e-Khas in the complex which was designed for private audiences.
- Buland Darwaza (53 m high), commemorating the emperor’s conquest of Gujarat.
- Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near Agra.
- Built the temple of Govindadeva at Vrindavan.
Mughal architecture of Jahangir
- Introduced ‘Pietra Dura‘ (decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started) was started in his reign only.
- Shalimar Bagh on the banks of Lake Dal in Kashmir.
- He also built Moti Masjid at Lahore & his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).
- Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at Agra.
Mughal architecture of Shahjahan
- Substitution of marble for the red sandstone.
- Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid & Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore & city of Shahjahanabad.
- Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal, etc.
Mughal architecture of Aurangzeb
- Built Moti Masjid at Delhi & Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
- Bibi-ki-Maqbara, tomb of Aurangzeb’s wife Begum Rabia Durani, a poor replica of the famous Taj Mahal
- Abdul Qadir Badauni wrote Kitab-ul-Ahadish, Tarikh-i-Alfi & Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh.
- Abul Fazal composed Ain-I-Akbari and Akbarnamah.
- Dara translated Upanishads & Bhagvadgita into persian.
- Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri (in Persian language), & patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang-I-Jahangiri.
- Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur’s Tuzuk-I-Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar’s reign.
- Mirza Mahammed Qazim wrote Alamgirnama.
- Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri.
Persian language became widespread in the Mughal Empire by the time of Akbar’s reign.