Mughal architecture: Babur to Aurangzeb

Mughal architecture of Babur

  • Built 2 mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in Rohilkhand.Mughal architecture

Mughal architecture of Humayun

  • Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi.
  • Built Jamali Mosque & the Mosque of Isa Khan at Delhi.
  • His tomb is called the ‘prototype of Taj Mahal’ & was built by his widow Haji Begum.Mughal architecture

Mughal architecture of Akbar

  • Used mostly red sandstone.
  • Built Agra fort.
  • Also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near Agra.
  • Buildings at Fatehpur Sikri blended both Islamic and Hindu elements in their architectural style.
  • In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai’s palace & Sheikh Salim Chishti’s tomb.
  • Diwan-e-Khas in the complex which was designed for private audiences.
  • Buland Darwaza (53 m high), commemorating the emperor’s conquest of Gujarat.
  • Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near Agra.
  • Built the temple of Govindadeva at Vrindavan.Mughal architecture

Mughal architecture of Jahangir

  • Introduced ‘Pietra Dura (decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started) was started in his reign only.
  • Shalimar Bagh on the banks of Lake Dal in Kashmir.
  • He also built Moti Masjid at Lahore & his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).
  • Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at Agra.Mughal architecture

Mughal architecture of Shahjahan

  • Substitution of marble for the red sandstone.
  • Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid & Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore & city of Shahjahanabad.
  • Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal, etc.Mughal architecture

Mughal architecture of Aurangzeb

  • Built Moti Masjid at Delhi & Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
  • Bibi-ki-Maqbara, tomb of Aurangzeb’s wife Begum Rabia Durani, a poor replica of the famous Taj MahalMughal architecture
Mughal literature
  • Abdul Qadir Badauni wrote Kitab-ul-Ahadish, Tarikh-i-Alfi & Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh.
  • Abul Fazal composed Ain-I-Akbari and Akbarnamah.
  • Dara translated Upanishads & Bhagvadgita into persian.
  • Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri (in Persian language), & patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang-I-Jahangiri.
  • Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur’s Tuzuk-I-Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar’s reign.
  • Mirza Mahammed Qazim wrote Alamgirnama.
  • Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri.
  • Persian language became widespread in the Mughal Empire by the time of Akbar’s reign.

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