Factors Promoting the Growth of Nationalism in India
1. Political Unity
- First time in India united politically & administratively under the British rule.
2. Development of Communication & Transport
- Introduction of railways, telegraphs & postal services.
- Construction of roads & canals facilitated communication among the people.
- English language played an important role in the growth of nationalism in the country.
- English educated Indians, who led the national movement, developed Indian nationalism & organised it.
- It facilitated the spread of the concepts of liberty, equality, freedom & nationalism.
- Sowed the seeds of nationalism.
- The Indian Press, both English & vernacular, had also aroused the national consciousness.
5. Social and Religious Movements
- Leaders of various organisations like the Brahmo Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Arya Samaj, & Theosophical Society generated a feeling of regard for & pride in the motherland.
6. Economic Exploitation by the British
- A good deal of anti-British feeling was created by the economic policy pursued by the British government in India.
- The English systematically ruined the Indian trade & native industries.
7. Racial Discrimination
- The Revolt of 1857 created a kind of permanent bitterness & suspicion between the British & the Indians.
- The English feeling of racial superiority grew.
- India as a nation & Indians as individuals were subjected to abuses, shame & disrespectful treatment.
8. Administration of Lytton
- Lord Lytton arranged the Delhi Durbar at a time when the larger part of India was in famine.
- He passed the Vernacular Press Act which curbed the liberty of the Indian Press.
- His Arms Act was a means to prevent the Indians from keeping arms.
9. The Ilbert Bill controversy
- Tried to remove racial inequality between Indian & European judges in courts.
- This Bill was opposed by the British residents in India & was modified.
Thus various factors contributed to the rise of nationalism & the formation of the Indian National Congress.
Early Political Associations
- The British Indian Association → 1851 Bengal
- The Bombay Association → 1852, Dadabhai Naoroji
- East India Association →1856 London
- Madras Native Association →1852
- Poona Sarvojanik Sabha →1870
- The Madras Mahajana Sabha → 1884
Also read: Indian National Congress, 1885
- Known as the Indian Edmund Burke.
- born in Calcutta (Kolkata), in the province of Bengal
- Founded the Indian Association in1876.
- Assembled the Indian National Conference in 1883 & later merged with the INC in l886.
G. Subramanya Aiyar
- Preached nationalism through the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
- Also founded the “The Hindu” & “Swadesamitran”.
- Also known as ‘Indian Gladstone’ & Grand Old Man of India.
- Regarded as India’s unofficial Ambassador in England.
- First Indian to become a Member of the British House of Commons.
- First to demand ‘Swaraj’ from the INC Platform (Calcutta session, 1906).
- Wrote a book ‘Poverty & Un British Rule in India’ in 1901.
- Famous for “Drain theory”
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- Political guru of Gandhi.
- In 1905, he founded the Servants of India Society.
1.Moderates phase (1885-1905)
- INC vision was dim, vague & confused.
- Movement confined to a small quantity of the educated middle class people.
- A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, S.N.Banerjee, Dadabhai Nauroji, Feroze Shah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Justice Ranade & G.Subramanya Aiyar were important leaders.
- Believe in liberalism & moderate politics.
- Popularised the idea of swadeshi or the use of Indian goods, & the boycott of British goods as a means of promoting Indian industries.
- Publicly burnt foreign clothes in 1896 as part of the larger swadeshi campaign.
- Their methods were mainly beggary through prayers & petition.
Demands of Moderates
- More opportunities & the ICS examination simultaneously in England & in India.
- Self government to India within the British Empire as in the colonies of Australia and Canada.
- Expansion & reform of legislative councils.
- Separation of the judiciary from the executive.
- More powers for the local bodies.
- Reduction of land revenue & protection of peasants from unjust landlords.
- Abolition of salt tax & sugar duty.
- Reduction of spending on army.
- Freedom of speech & expression & freedom to form associations
Acheivements of moderates
- Succeeded in creating a wide political awakening & in arousing among the Indians the feeling that they belong to one nation.
- Succeeded in getting the expansion of the legislative councils by the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
- And also succeeded in exposing the true character of the British imperialism in India.
Dadabhai Nauroji in his famous book “Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India” wrote his Drain Theory. He showed how India’s wealth was going away to England in the form of: (a) salaries,(b)savings, (c) pensions, (d) payments to British troops in India and (e) profits of the British companies.
- Laid strong foundation for the national movement.