Miniature paintings in Mughal period

Pala school of paintings

  • Mostly manuscript paintings.
  • Theme: Buddhism.
  • Executed on palm leaf or paper.pala

Apabrahmsa school of paintings

  • Originated in Mewad, Rajasthan & Gujarat region.
  • Theme: Jainism & Vaishnavism.apabrahmsa-paintings


  • Miniature paintings.
  • Bulging eyes,
  • Pointed nose & Double chin.
  • Use of Bright & Gold colors.
  • Stiff figure.
  • Animals & Birds separated as toys.

Mughal period

  • Influence of Indian, Persian & European styles.


  • Used of Brilliant colors.
  • Marked by supple naturalism
  • Accuracy in line drawing.
  • Primarily aristocratic and secular.
  • Ornamentation.
  • Mostly of miniature paintings.
  • Used foresightening technique – Objects are in a way that they closer & Smaller than they really are.
  • Tuti-nama – first work of the Mughal School.
  • Hamza-nama ( illustrations on cloth)- more developed & refined than Tuti-nama.Mughal period


  • Patronized a Persian painter named Bihzad.


  • Brought 2 Persian painters; Abdus Sammad & Mir Saeed Ali.
  • From now Persian influence started.


  • Organised painting in imperial karkhanas & also introduced European style.
  • Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent painters.
  • Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).
  • Hamznama, which consisted 1200 paintings. Indian colors such as peacock blue, Indian red began to be used.


  • 3D figures
  • Use of foresightening
  • use of Calligraphy in the Paintings
  • Themes: Fares & Festivals


  • Painting reached its zenith under Jahangir.
  • He was a Naturist & preferred the pictures of Flora & Fauna.
  • Paintings have decorated margins.
  • Bishan Das was a master of portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal painting.
  • Use of ‘Halo’ or Divine Lights started under Jahangir.


  • Too much use of gold, silver & Bright colors in paintings.
  • Reduced livliness.
  • Pencil slouching widely used.


  • Discouraged paintings.

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