Jain Architecture Style
- Only variation in these temples was in the form offrequent chamukhs or 4-faced temples.
- 4 Tirthankars are be placed back to back to face 4 cardinal points.
- Entry into this temple is also from 4 doors.
- Chamukh temple of Adinath (1618 AD) is a characteristic example of the 4-door temple.
- Most spectacular of all Jain temples are found at Ranakpur & Mount Abu in Rajasthan.
- Deogarh (Lalitpur, U.P.), Ellora, Badami and Aihole also have some of the important specimens of Jain Art.
Rajput Architecture Style
- Rajput palaces – built as inner citadels surrounded by the city & enclosed by a fortified wall as at Chittorgarh & Jaisalmer.
- Bharatpur & Deeg, were protected by wide ditch filled with water surrounding the fort.
- Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Udaipur & Kota Palaces were built approx. 17th to early 18th century.
- Bikaner is encircled by 5.63 km long Stone wall made of rich pink sandstone with five gates & three sally ports.
- Jodhpur Fort dominates the city, which is surrounded by a huge wall nearly 9.5 km long with 101 bastions.
- Meherangarh fort built by Jai Singh, stands on a cliff with a sheer drop of over 36 metres.
- Hawa Mahal, or Palace of Winds, (1799) has a five – storeyed symmetrical facade composed of 953 small casements in a huge curve each with a projecting balcony & crowning arch.
- Jantar Mantar, the largest of five observatories built by Jai Singh II in the early 18th century, others being Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi & New Delhi.
- The largest palace in Gwalior, was built by Raja Man Singh Tomar (1486-1516)
- Has two storeys above, and two below ground level overhanging a sandstone cliff
- This gigantic cliff is punctuated by five massive round towers, crowned by domed cupolas and linked by delicately carved parapets
- Built by Jai Singh, represents a synthesis of Rajput and Mughal architectural styles.
- The city is enclosed by a wall and has bastions and towers at regular intervals.
Prominent structures at Jaipur
- Hawa Mahal (1799) has a five-storeyed symmetrical facade composed of 953 small casements in a huge curve each with a projecting balcony and crowning arch.
- Jantar Mantar, the largest of five observatories built by Jai Singh II in the early 18thcentury, others being Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi & New Delhi.
Kashmir School of Architecture
- Typified by use of woodwork.
- Log construction using deodar trees for the construction of wooden bridges called kadals or the wooden shrines called ziarats
- Mosque of Shah Hamdan in Srinagar & the Jama Masjid at Srinagar built by Sikandar Butshikan (1400 AD) – examples of the wooden architecture
- Fort of Hari Parbat, the Pattar Masjid (1623) & the Akhun Mulla Shah’s mosque (1649) are illustrations of art of stone building in Kashmir.
Avadh (oudh) style
- Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh.
- Bara Imambara built by the Nawab in 1784. Absence of pillars in the main hall & simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features.
- Chattar Manzil – main attractions are the underground rooms & a beautiful dome surrounded by a gilt umbrella.
- Kaiser Bagh is a quadrangular park with a baradari (pavilion) and yellow-coloured buildings on three sides.
- Roshanwali Koti and Begum Koti at Hazratgunj – Italian style is more prominent.
- Developed under the influence of the Mughal style.
- Characterised by certain indigenous features like the multiplicity of chattris /kiosks, use of fluted dome generally covered with copper or brass-gilt and enrichment of arches by numerous foliations.
- Golden Temple at Amritsar in 1764 built by the 4th Sikh Guru Ramdas.