Medieval Architecture Styles: Jains & Rajputs

Jain Architecture Style

  • Only variation in these temples was in the form offrequent chamukhs or 4-faced temples.
  • 4 Tirthankars are be placed back to back to face 4 cardinal points.
  • Entry into this temple is also from 4 doors.
  • Chamukh temple of Adinath (1618 AD) is a characteristic example of the 4-door temple.
  • Most spectacular of all Jain temples are found at Ranakpur & Mount Abu in Rajasthan.
  • Deogarh (Lalitpur, U.P.), Ellora, Badami and Aihole also have some of the important specimens of Jain Art.adinath-temple

Rajput Architecture Style

  • Rajput palaces – built as inner citadels surrounded by the city & enclosed by a fortified wall as at Chittorgarh & Jaisalmer.
  • Bharatpur & Deeg, were protected by wide ditch filled with water surrounding the fort.
  • Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Udaipur & Kota Palaces were built approx. 17th to early 18th century.
  • Bikaner is encircled by 5.63 km long Stone wall made of rich pink sandstone with five gates & three sally ports.
  • Jodhpur Fort dominates the city, which is surrounded by a huge wall nearly 9.5 km long with 101 bastions.
  • Meherangarh fort built by Jai Singh, stands on a cliff with a sheer drop of over 36 metres.
  • Hawa Mahal, or Palace of Winds, (1799) has a five – storeyed symmetrical facade composed of 953 small casements in a huge curve each with a projecting balcony & crowning arch.
  • Jantar Mantar, the largest of five observatories built by Jai Singh II in the early 18th century, others being Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi & New Delhi.man-mandir

Man Mandir

  • The largest palace in Gwalior, was built by Raja Man Singh Tomar (1486-1516)
  • Has two storeys above, and two below ground level overhanging a sandstone cliff
  • This gigantic cliff is punctuated by five massive round towers, crowned by domed cupolas and linked by delicately carved parapetsjanthar-manthar

Jaipur

  • Built by Jai Singh, represents a synthesis of Rajput and Mughal architectural styles.
  • The city is enclosed by a wall and has bastions and towers at regular intervals.

Prominent structures at Jaipur

  • Hawa Mahal (1799) has a five-storeyed symmetrical facade composed of 953 small casements in a huge curve each with a projecting balcony and crowning arch.
  • Jantar Mantar, the largest of five observatories built by Jai Singh II in the early 18thcentury, others being Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi & New Delhi.

Kashmir School of Architecture

  • Typified by use of woodwork.
  • Log construction using deodar trees for the construction of wooden bridges called kadals or the wooden shrines called ziarats
  • Mosque of Shah Hamdan in Srinagar & the Jama Masjid at Srinagar built by Sikandar Butshikan (1400 AD) – examples of the wooden architecture
  • Fort of Hari Parbat, the Pattar Masjid (1623) & the Akhun Mulla Shah’s mosque (1649) are illustrations of art of stone building in Kashmir.

Avadh (oudh) style

  • Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh.
  • Bara Imambara built by the Nawab in 1784. Absence of pillars in the main hall & simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features.
  • Chattar Manzil – main attractions are the underground rooms & a beautiful dome surrounded by a gilt umbrella.
  • Kaiser Bagh is a quadrangular park with a baradari (pavilion) and yellow-coloured buildings on three sides.
  • Roshanwali Koti and Begum Koti at Hazratgunj – Italian style is more prominent.

Punjab style

  • Developed under the influence of the Mughal style.
  • Characterised by certain indigenous features like the multiplicity of chattris /kiosks, use of fluted dome generally covered with copper or brass-gilt and enrichment of arches by numerous foliations.
  • Golden Temple at Amritsar in 1764 built by the 4th Sikh Guru Ramdas.

    golden-temple

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