Later Mughals – Socio,Economic & Cultural conditions

Mughal Architecture Fall of Mughal Empire

After the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal empire lost its glory and gradually declined. His successors were weak and incapable rulers.

Bahadur Shah (1707 – 1712)

  • Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah– i – Bekhabar.

  • Made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal.

  • Granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.

Jahandar Shah (1712 – 13) First puppet Mughal emperor & He also abolished jaziya.

Farrukhsiyar (1713 – 19)

Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers).

Finally he was mudered by them with the help of Maratha rulers.

Mohammad Shah (1719 – 48)

  • Nadir Shah defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away Peacock throne & Kohinoor diamond.

  • During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam-ul-Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal & Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire.

  • He was Nick named as Rangeela.

Ahmad Shah (1748 – 54) During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir.

Alamgir II (1754 – 59)

Shah Alam II (1759 – 1806)

  • Joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal & Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764.

Akbar II (1806 – 37)

He gave Ram mohan Roy the title ‘Raja’.

And also he sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his allowance.

Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 57)

  • He was the last mughal ruler.

  • Confined by the British to the Red Fort.

  • During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels.

  • He was sent to Rangoon, where he finally died.

Mughal administrationMughal Administration System

  • Entire kingdom was divided into suba or pranta, suba into sarkar, sarkar into pargana and the pargana into villages.

  • Babur & Humayun had a Prime Minister known as Vakil. After Bairam Khan the office of Vakil was discontinued.

  • Wazir Prime Minister.

  • Dewan revenue department.

  • Mir Bakshi Military Department.

  • Amir Judicial officer in civil and judicial disputes.
  • Khan-i-Saman Royal household.
  • Lambardar Village headman.
  • Mustaufi Auditor General.
  • Patwari Village accountant.
  • Qazi-ul-quzaf Judicial Department. The qazis were helped by the muftis.
  • Quanungo Head accountant.
  • Sadr-us-Sadr Charitable and religious endowments.
  • During Akbar’s reign the empire was divided into 15 subas. The number reached 21 during Aurangzeb’s reign.

  • The territory of the empire was divided into

  • khalisa (crown lands),
  • jagirs (land granted to nobles) &
  • inam (land granted to religious & learned men).


Mughal architecture

Babur : Built 2 mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in Rohilkhand.

Humayun

  • Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at Delhi.

  • Built Jamali Mosque & the Mosque of Isa Khan at Delhi.

  • His tomb is called the prototype of Taj Mahal & was built by his widow Haji Begum.

Akbar

  • Built Agra fort.

  • Also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near Agra.

  • In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai’s palace & Sheikh Salim Chishti’s tomb.

  • Buland Darwaza (53 m high), commemorating the emperor’s conquest of Gujarat.

  • Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near Agra.

  • Built the temple of Govindadeva at Vrindavan.

Jahangir

  • Pietra Dura (decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started) was started in his reign only.

  • He also built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).

  • Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at Agra.

Shahjahan

  • Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid & Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore & city of Shahjahanabad.

  • Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal, etc.

Aurangzeb

• Built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.

• Built Bibi ka Makbara in Aurangabad.

Paintings of Mughal Period

Humayun

He invited 2 Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali & Abdus Samad, who became his court painters.

Akbar

  • Organised painting in imperial karkhanas & also introduced European style.

  • Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent painters.

  • Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).

  • Hamznama, which consisted 1200 paintings. Indian colours such as peacock blue, Indian red began to be used.

Jahangir

  • Painting reached its zenith under Jahangir.

  • Bishan Das was a master of portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal painting.

  • Use of ‘Halo’ or Divine Lights started under Jahangir.

Mughal literature

  • Abdul Qadir Badauni wrote Kitab-ul-Ahadish, Tarikh-i-Alfi & Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh.

  • Abul Fazal composed Ain-I-Akbari and Akbarnamah.

  • Dara translated Upanishads & Bhagvadgita into persian.

  • Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk-I-Jahangiri (in Persian language), & patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang-I-Jahangiri.

  • Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur’s Tuzuk-I-Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar’s reign.

  • Mirza Mahammed Qazim wrote Alamgirnama.
  • Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri.
  • Persian language became widespread in the Mughal Empire by the time of Akbar’s reign.

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