Birth place → Mecca in Arabia.
Founder → Prophet Muhammad.
His teachings made the wealthy people of Mecca his enemies.
So he transmigrated to Medina in 622 A.D.
Made 622 A.D. as the starting point of the Muslim calendar & the Muslim era called hijra.
Followers of Muhammad set up an empire called the Caliphate.
Umayyads and the Abbasids were called the caliphs.
In 712 A.D., Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind & defeated Dahir, the ruler of Sind.
But People of Sind were given the status of zimmis (protected subjects).
- Soon Qasim was called by the new Khalifa.
Cause of this expedition:
- Neither the desire for territorial expansion nor religious.
- An Arab ship fell in the hands of pirates near Debal. A Muslim governor demanded to arrest the pirates.
- But Dahir showed his ignorance, this emerged AI Hajjaj and he attacked Sindh.
Impact of Arab Rule in Sindh
- Conversion of Sindh people to Islam.
- Foundation of Islam in India
- Indian numerals in the Arabic form went to Europe through them.
- Introduction of formal slavery system in India
- Promotion to Arab trade.
Invasion of Muhmud of Ghazni
- Mahmud of Ghazni raided India for the first time in AD 1000 for her wealth.
- Around 900 AD, Caliphate declined & Turkish established independent kingdoms
- In a short period of 25 years, he made 17 raids.
Famous Poets in Mahmud court:
- Firdausi → Wrote Shahnamah
- Alberuni → Wrote Kitab-i-Hind
- Utbi → wrote Kitab-ud-Yamni.
Cause: Attracted by the fabulous wealth lying in the garbhagriha of the temples.
- Exposition of India’s military weakness & political disunity.
- Great setback to Indian art and sculpture owing to destruction of idols and templses.
- Opportunity to Islam to set its foothold in India
- Growing of the feeling of hatred and fear among the Hindus towards the Muslims.
Arrivals of Muslim saints, called the Sufis ,providing impetus to greater Hindu-Muslim interaction.
Ghori started as feudatory of Ghazni but became independent after the death of Mahmud.
After securing his place at Ghazni, now he turned his attention to India.
Unlike Mahmud of Ghazni, he wanted to conquer India and extend his empire in this direction
Prithviraj Chauhan led the Rajputs against Muhammed Ghori at the First battle of Tarain in 1191 and the Rajputs became victorious.
At the Second battle of Tarain in 1191 at the same place, Prithviraj was defeated by the kingdom of Delhi fell to Ghori.
Muhammad Ghori defeated and killed Jayachandra, the king of Kanauj, in the Battle of Chadawar.
Both the Battles of Tarain and Chandawar contributed to the establishment of Turkish rule in India.
Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms
Most important cause of failure was that they lacked unity.
The Rajput princes spent one another by their mutual conflicts.
Secondly, many Hindu states were declining in power & their military methods were out of date and far inferior to those of Muslims.
Indians continued to rely on elephants while the Muslims possessed quick-moving cavalry.
Finally Ghori was stuck dead by Prithviraj Chauhan
After the Second Battle of Tarain, Prithviraj was taken as a prisoner in Ghori and was brought in chains before Mahmud. He pridefully looked Ghori straight into the eye. Ghori ordered him to lower his eyes, But he refused. Ghori ordered that Prithviraj’s eyes be burnt with red hot iron rods. Chand Bardai came in disguise and secured himself a place in Mahmud’s court by purveying his skills as a composer of poems. The two got the revenge opportunity when Ghori announced an archery competition. Chand Bardai told Ghori that Prithviraj was so skilled an archer, that he could take aim based only on sound, and did not even need to look, at his target. The blind and pitiful Prithviraj was brought out to the field and given a bow and arrows. In the a spirit of the occasion, Mahmud Ghori personally gave Prithviraj the order to shoot. Thus, Chand Bardai provided Prithviraj with an aural indication of where Ghori was seated. He gave Prithviraj one further indication of the same, by composing a couplet on the spot and reciting the same in Prithviraj’s hearing. The couplet, composed in a language understood only by Prithviraj.
Ghori then ordered Prithviraj to shoot, Prithviraj turned in the direction from where he heard Ghori speak, and, taking aim based only on the voice and on Chand Bardai’s couplet, he sent an arrow racing to Ghori’s throat. Ghori was thus stuck dead by Prithviraj. Naturally, after this deed, Prithviraj was killed by Mahmud’s courtiers.