Also known as’ Bronze Age’ / ‘Saraswathi sindhu’ / ‘Harappan civilization’.
- Usually in Square, Rectangular, Circular & Triangular shapes with an average size of ‘2 x 2.’
- Engraved in pictographic script (Writing – Right to left) along with animal impressions which are yet to be deciphered
- Made up of soft river stone, Copper, steatite, gold & ivory – mainly for trade & commerce
- An average of 5 signs are present on Seals.
- Decorated with animals pics like Unicorn, Bull, Rhinoceros, Elephant, Tiger, Bison, Goat & Buffalo etc..
- No seal found with the image of cow till now.
- Indus seals found in Mesopotamia i.e Sign of possible trade.
Significance of Seal
- Used as an amulet i.e to ward off the evil.
- Also used as an educational tool. Some seals have presence of pie sign.
- Prominent Seals; Pashupati, humped bull, elephant & rhinoceros.
- It is a fire baked clay & is handmade using pinching method
- Ex:- Mother Goddess, Toy carts with wheels etc.
- The technique used for casting is known as “Lost Wax Technique.”
- It is a naked girl wearing only ornaments which include bangles, armlets, necklace & amulets.
- The left hand is on the hip & made using “Lost Wax Technique.”
Lost Wax Technique
- wax figures are covered with a coating of clay and allowed to dry
- Then it is heated & the molten wax is allowed to drain out through a tiny hole at the bottom of the clay
- The hollow mould is then filled with bronze or any other metal
- Once the metal is cooled, the clay is removed
- Ex:- ‘Dancing Girl’ & buffalo with its uplifted head, back & horns
Other stone Sculpture
- 2 Stone male figures; Torso in red sandstone & Bust of a bearded man in steatite.
- Mainly plain, red & black painted.
- Consists primarily of wheel- made wares, & very few being hand-made.
- Under red & black pottery, red color was used to paint background.
- While black colour to draw designs of trees, birds, human figures & geometrical patterns.
Use of Pottery
- For household purpose (storage of water, food grains etc.)
- For decoration- Miniature vessels used for decoration (Less than 1/2 inch)
- Used as perforated pottery i.e large hole at the bottom & small holes all over the wall, & probably was used for straining liquor).
- Made of a large variety of materials like precious metals, gemstones, bone & even baked clay.
- Necklaces, armlets & finger rings were common & Worn by male & female. But earrings wore only by females.
- Evidences of dead bodies buried along with ornaments have also been found.
- Conscious of Fashion
- Cinnabar was used as a cosmetic lipstick, face paint & eyeliner were also known.
- Spinning of cotton & wool was common.
- Citadel / Acropolis at cities for member of ruling class (west side) & brick houses below citadel in town for commoners
- Fortifications with gateways enclosing the walled cities shows that there may have been a fear of being attacked
- Concept of two-storied houses was also present
- Large scale use of baked bricks as building material.
- Granaries in Citadels with strategic air-ducts, gives an idea of an organised collection & distribution system
- Remarkable grid system of roads & Roads cutting at right angle to each other.
- Remarkable underground drainage system connecting all houses & streets covered by bricks / stone slabs.
- Great Bath – public bathing place shows the importance of ritualistic bathing and cleanliness in this culture.