Indo Islamic or Indo Saracenic Style
- Advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century
- A mixture of Indian, Persian, Arab & Turkish.
- Early buildings of the Slave dynasty consisted of false domes & false arches.
- Introduction of true arches & true domes started to appear with construction of Alai Darwaza by the side of Qutub Minar by Allaudin Khilji.
- Concept of arch or dome was not invented by the Muslims but was, in fact, borrowed & was further perfected by them from the architectural styles of the post-Roman period.
- Used cementing agent in the form of mortar for the first time.
- Use of scientific principles helped not only in obtaining greater strength & stability of the construction materials but also provided greater flexibility to the architects & builders.
- Islamic elements of architecture had already passed through different experimental phases in other countries like Egypt, Iran & Iraq before these were introduced in India.
- Typical mortar-masonry works formed of dressed stones.
- Mosques & Tombs – religious architecture
- Palaces & Forts – secular Islamic architecture.
Features of Indo Islamic medieval art
- Arch & Dome method.
- Presence of Minor.
- Use of mortar as cementing agent.
- Avoided representation of Human being.
- Avoided Spaciousness, massiveness & Breadth.
- Generally decorated richly in geometrical & arabesque methods.
- Use of figures & animals discouraged.
- Use of geomentry in terms of Symmetry & for drawing geometrical pattern.
- Use of gates in the premises in the form of courtyard pools & foutains.
- Charbagh style.
- Pietra dura technique.
- Foresightening technique.
- It means Geometricized vegetal ornament.
- It is characterized by continuous stem which splits regularly producing a series of counter poised, leafy secondary stems.
- Secondary stems split again into tertiary stems to be reintegrated into the main stem.
Medieval art Mosques
- Basically an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah crowned off with a dome
- Mihrab indicates the direction of the qibla for prayer.
- Towards the right of the mihrab stands the mimbar or pulpit from where the Imam presides over the proceedings.
- Large mosques where the faithful assemble for the Friday prayers are called the Jama Masjids.
- General pattern of the tomb architecture is consisted of a domed chamber (hujra), a cenotaph in its centre with a mehrab on the western wall and the real grave in the underground chamber
- Mughals added a new dimension by introducing gardens all around the tomb.
- Mughal tombs are generally placed at the centre of a huge garden complex, the latter being sub divided into square compartments, known as ‘Char-bagh style‘.
- Scholars trace the evolution of the char-bagh pattern of gardening to the original land of the Mughals, the Kabul Valley.
- They are also credited to have introduced the double dome system of dome architecture & the Peitra-dura style of inlay decorations.
Prominent Indo-Islamic medieval art styles
- The Imperial Style or Delhi sultanate art
- The Provincial styles or Malwa, Bengal, Jaunpur arts
- The Mughal Style (Delhi, Agra & Lahore)
- The Deccan style (Bijapur & Hyderabad)
- Temple Architecture in South India – Dravida style
- Imperial Style during Islamic Era in India
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