Indian Islands: Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep

The physical features of India:

(1) The Himalayan Mountains

(2) The Northern Plains

(3) The Peninsular Plateau

(4) The Indian Desert

(5) The Coastal Plains

(6) The Indian Islands

Indian Islands

  • There are two major island groups in India (i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and (ii) Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

  • The southern most point of India is in Nicobar Island, known as ‘Indira Point

  • Formerly Indira point was called ‘Pigmalion Point,, it is submerged, after 2004 Tsunami

Indian Islands mapAndaman and Nicobar Islands (Bay of Bengal)

  • This group is composed of 265 big and small islands

  • The entire group of India islands is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south.

  • They are separated by a water body which is called the Ten degree channel. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.

  • Port Blair, the capital of Andaman Nicobar Islands lies in the South Andaman.

  • Among the Nicobar islands, the Great Nicobar is the largest. It is the southernmost island and is very close to Sumatra island of Indonesia.

  • Most of these islands are made of tertiary sandstone, limestone and shale resting on basic and ultrabasic volcanoes.

  • Barren island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar islands.

  • Some of the Indian islands are fringed with coral reefs. Many of them are covered with thick forests. Most of the islands are mountainous.

  • Saddle peak (737 m) in North Andaman is the highest peak.

Andaman and Nicobar islands - ten degree channel Lakshadweep Islands (Arabian Sea)

  • The Indian islands of the Arabian sea include Lakshadweep and Minicoy. These islands are located at a distance of 280 km-480 km off the Kerala coast.

  • The entire island group is built of coral deposits. There are approximately 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited. Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km.

  • The entire group of islands is broadly divided by the Eleventh degree channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south of the Canannore Island.

  • The Islands of this archipelago have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders on the eastern seaboard.

New Moore Island - India and Bangladesh conflictNew Moore Island / South Talpatti

  • It emerged in the Bay of Bengal in the aftermath of the Bhola cyclone in 1970. It keeps on emerging and vanishing.
  • Although the island was uninhabited and there were no permanent settlements or stations located on it, both India and Bangladesh claimed sovereignty over it because of speculation over the existence of oil and natural gas in the region.

Corals

  • Coral polyps are short-lived microscopic organisms, which live in colonies.

  • They flourish in shallow, mud free and warm waters. They secrete calcium carbonate.

  • The coral secretion and their skeletons from coral deposits in the form of reefs:

  • They are mainly of 3 kinds: 1.barrier reef, 2.fringing reef and 3.atolls and Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are formed by corals.

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