Hydroelectric Power in India & multipurpose projects

Hydroelectric Power

  • India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power.

  • Hydroelectric power potential of 84,000 MW at 60% load factor is one of the largest in the world.

  • The present installed capacity as on 31 March 2016 is 42,783 MW which is 14.35% of total utility electricity generation capacity in India

  • Massive efforts were made to develop waterpower during the Five Year Plans and several multipurpose projects were commissioned.Hydroelectric power

Potential actors of hydroelectric power:

  • This potential depends on several physical and economic factors.

  • Among them, river regime, volume of river water, regularity in river flow (all these are dependent on rainfall pattern), nature of terrain, availability of other sources of power, level of economic development creating demand, and technological status are important.

  • Regular flow of sufficient water with high velocity provides favourable condition for the development of hydroelectricity.

  • Amount and regularity of flow depends on nature of rainfall while slope determines the velocity of flow.

  • Since these conditions vary throughout the country, the distribution of hydropower potential is also very uneven.

Important multipurpose projects :

 Hydroelectric Power Bhakra-nangal-dam Bhakra Nangal Project:

  • It is a joint venture of the Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan governments.

  • It is Constructed across the Satluj river near Bhakra gorge, it is the highest straightway gravity dam in the world.

  • The dam is 518 m long and 226 m high. Its reservoir is known as the Gobind Sagar (named after Sikh Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru of Sikhs).

  • It is a multipurpose project funded by the Central Government, built to generate electricity, provide irrigation, flood control, soil conservation, silt control, recreation, navigation; pisci-culture, preserving wild-life, and cattle rearing.

Damodar Valley Project:

  • It is a tributary of the Hugli River and known as the ‘Sorrow of Bengal’.

  • The Damodar Valley Corporation was established on February 18, 1948.

  • Under this project, 4 dams were constructed namely, Tilaiya, Maithon, Konar, and Panchet Dams.

(i) Tilaiya Dam:

It is constructed across the Barakar river.

It has two power stations of 2000 kW each have been set-up here.

It provides irrigation to40,000 hectares of land.

Underground power station with installed capacity of 60,000 kW provides cheap power to the mica mines of Kodarma and Hazaribagh.

(ii) Konar Dam:

It constructed across the Konar river—a tributary of the Damodar River in the Hazaribagh District.

It provides cooling water to the Bokaro Steel Plant.

The hydel station located near the dam generates about 40,000 kW of electricity.

(iii) Maithon Dam :

Constructed across the Barakar river near the confluence of Barakar with Damodar river, it is a

56 m high dam.

It provides irrigation to 50,000 hectares of arable land.

The underground power station generates 60,000 kW of electricity.

(iv) Panchet Hill Dam:

It constructed across the Damodar river, about 20 km south of the Maithon Dam, 45 m high and 2545 m long.

It installed capacity of 40,000 kW and irrigates about 3 lakh hectares of agricultural land.

Dool Hasti:

  • It constructed across the Chenab river in the Doda district of the Jammu Division.

  • Its objective was to harness the water of Chenab river and to generate electricity to be supplied to the main cities of the state including the cities of Srinagar and Jammu.

Gandhi Sagar:

  • It constructed across the Chambal river.

  • The installed capacity of the Gandhi Sagar Dam is 115 MW.

  • Five generators have been installed at Gandhi Sagar; four with a capacity of 2300 kW and one with a capacity of 2700 kW.

  • It providing power and irrigation to the surrounding regions of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

Hirakud Dam - Odissa-longest-in-the-worldHirakud Project:

  • It constructed across the Mahanadi river, this project was funded by the Central Government.

  • It is a 14 km long dam, considerd to be the longest in the world.

  • It involves the construction of three dams across Mahanadi, at Hirakud, Tikrapara, and Naraj.

  • The Hirakud Project, according to recent study, has increased floods and droughts in the region.

  • Due to increasing siltation , the storage capacity of the reservoir has been reduced, causing floods in the lower catchment area of the Mahanadi.

Nangal Project:

  • It is constructed at Nangal, about 13 km downstream of the Bhakra-dam.

  • It is about 30 metres high, 305 m long, and 121 m wide.

  • Its main function is to generate electricity. It also supplies water to the Bhakra canals.

Jawahar Sagar Dam:

  • It is constructed to the north of Rana Pratap Dam in the state of Rajasthan, about 40 km to the north of the Rana Pratap Sagar.

  • A multipurpose project constructed to generate electricity, control floods and provide irrigation water to the catchment area.

Kosi Project:

  • It is called ‘the ‘Sorrow of Bihar‘, is an outcome of the joint agreement between the Nepali and Indian governments reached in 1954.

  • Its main objective is to construct a barrage near Hanumannagar in Nepal, to built embankments on both the banks of the river to control floods, to construct canals for irrigation and to generate hydro-power.

  • Kosi in July, 2008 shifted its course about 100 km towards east and caused great damage to life and property.

Koyna Project:

  • It is a multi-purpose project in the Satara District of Maharashtra state and installed capacity is 880 MW.

  • Hydro-electricity is being supplied to the cities of Satara, Sholapur, Sangli, Kolhapur and Pune.

Machkund Project:

  • It is a joint venture of the Andhra Pradesh and the Orissa states.

  • The Machkund Dam is 54 m high and 410 m long.

  • It is mainly a hydro-electric project which shall generate 115 MW electricity.

Mahi Project:

  • Constructed across the Mahi river which originates from the Vindhyan Hills of Madhya Pradesh.

  • The project on completion will generate 40 MW hydro-power and shall irrigate 80,000 hectares of agricultural land.

Mayurakshi Project:

  • It is a tributary of the Hugh which rises from the Chotanagpur Plateau and flows through Jharkhand and West Bengal.

  • A multipurpose project, generating 4000 kW of electricity and providing irrigation water to 3 lakh hectares.

  • Electricity from this project is supplied to Murshidabad, Birbhum (West Bengal), and Santhal Pargana (Jharkhand).

Mettur Dam:

  • It is built in 1937 across a tributary of the Kaveri river in the Nilgiris and has capacity to produce 240 MW of hydro-electricity.

  • Not only generating electricity and providing irrigation water, but it has also helped in the flood control in the basin.

Nagarjuna sagar DamNagarjun Sagar Project:

  • It is constructed across the Krishna river in Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh (Now Telangana state).

  • Its right and left bank canals have been named after Jawaharlal Nehru and Lal Bahadur Shastri respectively.

  • Generates 210 MW of hydro-electricity.

  • Supplied to Hyderabad, Khammam, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda and Vijaiwada.

Pochampad Project:

  • It is constructed across the Godavari river in Adilabad District.

  • It is a 115 km long canals irrigate about 2.5 lakh hectares in Adilabad, and Karimnagar districts of Telangana.

Periyar Project:

  • Originating from the Cardamom Hills, Periyar is an important river of Kerala.

  • A dam has been constructed across its course in hilly gorge.

  • Its installed capacity is 140 MW.

  • A multi-purpose project helping in the prevention of floods, soil erosion and generating electricity being supplied to Ernakulam, Kochi and neighbouring cities.

Rampad Sagar Dam:

  • Constructed in the lower reaches of the Godavari river, about 30 km to the north of Rajamundry.

  • It is a multi-purpose project designed to check floods, to provide irrigation in the delta region of the river and to generate electricity.

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam:

  • Constructed across the Chambal river, about 25 km to the north of the Gandhi Sagar Dam in the Kota District of Rajasthan.

  • A multipurpose project designed to generate electricity, to control floods and to provide irrigation water to the surrounding agricultural land and its installed capacity is 99 MW

Rihand Project:

  • Funded by the Central Government, it is the largest multi-purpose project of Uttar Pradesh.

  • Constructed across the Rihand river, a tributary of the Son river, near Pipri village in the

  • Sonbhadra District.

  • The reservoir of this dam has been named after Gobind Ballabh Pant.

  • Connected with the Obra hydro-power station and the Obra thermal power plant located in its vicinity.

  • The power generated from this project is supplied to eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar and northern parts of Madhya Pradesh.

  • Flood control in Son valley, control of soil erosion in Baghelkhand, tourism and pisci-culture are the other benefits from this project.

The Salal Project:

  • Constructed across the Chenab river in the Riasi District of Jammu Division of Jammu & Kashmir State.

  • Installed capacity of the project is 750 MW and inaugurated in 1986.

  • The electricity is supplied to Riasi, Udhampur, Jammu, and other neighbouring urban centres.

Sardar Sarovar Dam:

  • Constructed across the Narmada river near Navagaon.

  • The project when completed, will generate 1450 MW of hydro-electricity and will irrigate about 18 lakh hectares of agricultural land.

  • Promote dairy farming, livestock keeping, animal husbandry and allied occupations.

Shivasamudram Dam:

  • Built in 1902 across the Kaveri river in Karnataka.

  • The main objective of the project was to supply electricity to the Kolar Gold Mines, the city of Mysore and its neighbouring urban centres.

  • It helps in flood control and became a centre of tourists attraction.

Tawa Dam:

  • Constructed across the Tawa river; a left bank tributary of the Narmada river.

  • A multipurpose project which has been designed to provide irrigation water to more than 50,000 hectares and has the installed capacity to produce 150 MW hydro electricity.

Tehri Dam:

  • It constructed across the Bhagirathi river just below the confluence of Bhagirathi and Bhilaganga in the Tehri District of Uttarakhand.

  • Conceived by the Planning Commission in 1972, the work on the project was started in 1975.

  • Implemented with Soviet (Russian) technical and economic aid.

  • Provide irrigation to 2.74 lakh hectares in Uttarakhand and western Uttar Pradesh and will generate 1000 MW of hydro-electricity.

  • Some serious objections were raised about this project as the environment and ecology may be adversely affected by this project which has been constructed in a highly earthquake prone area of the country.

Tungbhadra Project:

  • A right hand tributary of the Krishna river which originates from the Western Ghats (Sahayadri Hills) of the Chikmagalur district of Karnataka.

  • It is constructed at Mallapuram near Hosepet in the Bellary District.

  • Three power houses have been constructed in this project to generate 126 MW of electricity and irrigate more than 4 lakh hectares of arable land.

Ukai Dam:

  • Ukai dan is a tributary of the Tapi river.

  • It is launched mainly to harness the Tapi water.

  • The installed capacity of the Ukai project is 300 MW and supplied to Surat and other neighbouring urban centres.

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