Gupta Age Architecture
- Known as “Golden Age of Indian Architecture”.
- Also marked as the climax stage of Buddhist caves & monasteries esp. in western central India.
- Nagara & Dravidian styles of Temple making evolved during this period.
- Mural paintings of Ajanta, which mainly depicted life stories of Buddha as in Jataka stories belong to this period
- Greatest development in this age is Cave paintings.
- Guptas were Brahmins by religion but they also showed their tolerance towards for both Buddhism & jainism.
- Issued Coins with king on one side & goddess on the other.
Under Hinduism, Mainly 3 deities were worshiped i.e
- Vishnu – Vaishnavas (North & central part of India)
- Shiva – Shaivas (S.India)
- Shakti – Shaktis (S.W Malabar region & E.India)
- One new school was added i.e. Sarnath school of sculpture
- Noteworthy example is Sultanganj Buddha (7.5 ft in height) – (Near Bhagalpur in Bihar)
- Buddha images in Sarnath have plain transparent drapery covering both shoulders
- Halo around the head has very little ornamentation
Gupta Temple Architecture
- Gupta period marks the beginning of Indian temple architecture.
- Manuals were written regarding how to form temples.
- Gupta temples were of 5 stages.
- Square building with flat roof
- Shallow pillared approach at the front
- Sanctum (garbhagriha) at the center of the temple
- On low platforms
- A single entrance & appporch (Mandapa)
- Mandapa appears to originate 1st from here
- Vishnu Varaha temples at Eran (MP)
- Square temple with a squat tower (shikhara) above;
- Pillared approach, a high platform at the base
- On high platforms
- ladkhan at Aihole (Karnataka) & Parbati temple at Nachnabuthara in M.P
- An elaboration of the first type
- Addition of an ambulatory (paradakshina) around the sanctum
- Sometimes a second story is present
- Most unique achievement of this stage was “Curvilinear tower” i.e. “Shikhara”.
- “Nagara Style” temple making is said to be the success of third stage of temple making.
- Ex:- Dasavatara temple in Deogarh, U.P. & Durga temple at Aihole, Karnataka.
- Rectangular temple & rest all features continued.
- Barrel-vaulted roof above
- Ex. Kapoteswara temple at Cezarla (Andhra Pradesh) & Ter temple at solapur.
- Circular temples with shallow rectangular projection
- Maniyar Math shrine at Rajgir, Bihar
- Sanskrit became primary language in Gupta period
- Ramayana & Mahabharata were compiled during this period
- Kalidasa wrote Abhigyanshakuntalam, MalvikagnimitramVikramorvasiya, KumarsambhavaRaghuvamsa, Ritusamhara, Meghaduta Vishakadatta, Mudrarakshash & Devi Chandraguptam
- Vishnusharma wrote Panchtantra stories
- Sudraka wrote Mrichakatika
- Amarsimha wrote Amarkosha
- Dandin wrote Kavyadarsa & Desa kumarcharita
Gupta Science & Technology
- Aryabhatta wrote Aryabhatiyam , Suryasidhhanta
- Varahmitra wrote Panch sidhhanta, Brihadsamhita, Brihadjataka (Astrology)
- Vagbhata wrote Ashtangasamgraha (Medicine)