Governors of Calcutta & Bengal, 1756 to 1833

Fort williamGovernors of Calcutta – Fort William

1.Roger Drake (1756 – 58)

  • In his reign only Calcutta was captured by Siraj-ul-Daula in the third Carnatic War.
  • Black Hole tragedy & Battle of Plassey of 1757 took place.

2.Robert Clive (1758 – 60)

  • Battle of Bedara in 1759, Dutch were defeated by the East India Company.
  • Calcutta was recaptured by Clive.
  • Collecting wealth from the victorious wars.

3.Henry Vansittart (1760 – 65)

  • Mir Jafar was replaced by Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal in 1760.
  • Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764.
  • Death of Mir Jafar & succession of his son Najmud-daula.
  • Treaty of Allahabad was concluded on 20th Feb, 1765 according to which the administration was left in deputy Subedar who was to be a British nominee.

4.Robert Clive (1765 – 67) 2nd term

  • Company got Diwani rights in Bengal, Bihar & Orissa.
  • Dual Government Started in Bengal .
  • Prohibited the servants of the company from
  • indulging in private trade & made payment of internal duties obligatory.

5.Harry Verclst (1767 – 69)

6.John Cartier (1769 – 72)

7.Warren Hastings (1772 – 73)

  • Ended Dual government in 1772 which was started by Clive
  • Signed the treaty of Benaras in 1773 with Nawab Shujauddaula of Awadh.
  • Quinquennial settlement of land revenue in 1772

Governor – Generals of Bengal

1.Warren Hastings (1773 – 85)

  • First governor general of Bengal.
  • Treasury was transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, misuse of Dastak was checked.
  • Dismissed Deputy Diwans – Muhammad Reza Khan (Bengal) & Raja Shitab Rai (Bihar).
  • Appointed Munni Begum as regent of minor Nawab Mubarakud Daula of Bengal.
  • Signed treaty of Faizabad (1775) with Asafud Daula of Awadh.
  • Rohilla War was fought in 1774 & Rohilkhand was captured by the Nawab of Awadh with the help of the British.
  • First Maratha War (1775-82) was ended with the Treaty of Salbai.
  • Second Mysore War (1780-84) was ended with the Treaty of Mangalore.
  • Stopped annual allowance of Rs 20 lakh to Shah Alam II on charges of seeking protection from the Marathas.
  • Codified Hindu & Muslim laws.
  • Trial of Nand Kumar & his judicial murder in 1775.
  • Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal with the help of Sir William Jones in 1784.
  • After his return to England in 1785, impeachment proceedings were initiated against him in the House of Lords but after a long trial of 7 years he was eventually acquitted.
  • In 1776 Manu’s Law was translated into English as the Code of Gentoo Laws.
  • Fatawa-i-Alamgiri was also translated.
  • 3 imp acts in his time; Regulating Act of 1773, Act of 1781 and Pitts India Act of 1784

2.Sir John Mac Pherson was made the acting Governor – General from 1785 to 1786.

3.Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 93)

  • Introduced Permanent Settlement in Bihar & Bengal (1793) which was also called as the Zamindari System.
  • Under this system got prosperity to both the Company & Zamindar had the cost of the common class.
  • First person to codify laws & separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice.
  • Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92) was ended with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam.
  • Introduced Cornwallis Code based on the principle of separation of powers in 1793.
  • Superintendent of Police was made the head of district police & became the in charge of an area of 1000 sq. miles.
  • Introduction of the civil Services in India.
  • Collectors were to get 1% of the revenue collection in addition to their salary of Rs. 1500.

4.Sir John Shore (1793 – 98)

  • First Charter Act of 1793 was passed.
  • Followed a policy of non-intervention.

5.Sir Alured Clark (1798) held the post temporarily.

6.Lord Wellesley (1798 – 1805)

  • Described himself as Bengali Tiger.
  • Created the Madras presidency.
  • Defeated Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo Mysore War in 1799.
  • Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance in 1798.
  • First state to sign the Subsidiary Alliance was Hyderabad in 1798.
  • Signed Treaty of Bassein (1802) with the Peshawa & fought Second Anglo-Maratha War during 1803-05.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote the Tuhfat-ul-Muwahiddin (gift to the Monotheists).
  • Opened college to train the Company’s servants in Calcutta. Thats why he is called as the Father of the Civil Services in India.
  • Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance in 1798.
  • Fourth Mysore War (1799) ended with the death of Tipu Sultan.
  • Lord Lake captured Delhi & Agra in 1803 and the Mughal Emperor was put under Company’s protection.

7.George Barlow (1805 – 1807)

  • He also followed a policy of non-intervention.
  • Sepoy Mutiny at Vellore in 1806.
  • Restored peace between Scindhia & Holkar.
  • Then Holkar accepted Subsidiary Alliance by Treaty of Rajpurghat in 1805.
  • End of Second Anglo-Maratha War.

8.Lord Minto I (1807 – 1813)

  • Concluded the treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809.
  • Charter Act of 1813 was passed.

9.Lord Hastings (1813 – 23)

  • Succeeded in the Gorkha war of the Anglo-Nepalese War (1813-1823).
  • Signed Treaty of Sogauli after defeating Amar Singh.
  • Abolished Peshwaship & annexed all his territories
  • Created the Bombay Presidency after the Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818).
  • Pindari War fought (1817-1818).
  • Introduction of Ryotwari Settlement in Madras Presidency by Governor, Thomas Munro in 1820.
  • Mahalwari (village community) system of land revenue was made in North-West Province by James Thomson.

10.Lord Amherst (1823 – 1828)

  • Received by Emperor Akbar II on terms of equality in 1827.
  • Signed Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 with lower Burma.
  • First Burmese War was fought (1824-26).
  • Capture of Bharatpur (1826).

11.Lord William Bentinck (1828 – 33)

  • Last Governor General of Bengal.
  • Prohibited Sati in 1829 on request of Raja Rajaram mohan Roy.
  • Suppressed Thugi in 1830.
  • Annexed Mysore (1830), Kachar (1832), Jaintia (1832) & Coorg (1834).
  • Regulation of 1833 on land revenue settlement by Mertins Bird (called father of land-revenue settlement).

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