Calcutta Session of INC, 1906
- Swaraj was adopted in December 1906 at the Calcutta session by the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji as the goal of Indian people.
Surat Session of INC, 1907
- INC split into 2 groups – the extremists & the moderates at the Surat session in 1907.
- The Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lal while the moderates by G.K. Gokhale.
- A controversy arose over the elected president, Rash Bihari Ghosh, as extremists did not accept him as they wanted Lala Lajpat Rai to be chosen.
- The government after this launched a massive attack on the extremists by suppressing their newspapers and arresting their leaders.
Also read: Indian Council Act or Morley-Minto Act, 1909
Ghadar Party, 1913
- Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das & Sohan Singh Bhakna.
- The name was taken from the weekly Ghadar which had been started on 1 Nov, 1913 to commemorate the 1857 revolt.
- Headquarters at San Francisco.
- Outbreak of the first World War provided the Ghadarites with an opportunity to free India from a government which was indifferent to their cause.
- And therefore they returned to India in thousands for a coordinated revolt in collaboration with the Bengal revolutionaries.
- Their plan was unsuccessful at the last moment due to treachery.
Komagata Maru Incident, 1914
- Komagata Maru was the name of the ship which carried a shipload of Sikh & Muslim immigrants from Punjab to Vancouver, Canada.
- But the Canadian immigration authorities turned them back after months of uncertainty.
- The ship finally anchored at Calcutta on 29 September, 1914 but the inmates refused to board the Punjab bound train & there was a clash with the police in which 22 persons were killed.
- Made the revolutionary activities which sought to avenge the death of the innocents.
Lucknow Pact, 1916
- During the 1916 Congress session at Lucknow two major events occurred.
- The divided Congress became united.
- The war between Britain & Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims.
- An understanding for joint action against the British was reached between the Congress & the Muslim League and it was called the “Lucknow Pact”
- The pact marked an important step in the Hindu-Muslim unity.
- The Congress accepted the separate electorates & both jointly demanding a representative government & dominion status for the country.
- After Tilak’s return having served a sentence of 6 years in Mandalay, Burma, he tried to secure his readmission along with other extremists in the INC.
- Tilak and Annie Besant readied to assume leadership & Two Home Rule Leagues were established, one by B.G. Tilak at Poona in April 1916 & the other by Mrs. Annie Besant & S.Subramania Iyer at Adyar near Madras in September 1916.
- The two Leagues cooperated with each other as well with the Congress & the Muslim League in putting their demand for home rule.
- While Tilak’s Movement concentrated on Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central Province & Bihar While Annie Besant’s Movement covered the rest of the country.
- The aim of the Movement was to get self government for India within the British Empire.
- Moreover, the leaders of the Home Movement thought that India’s resources were not being used for her needs.
- The Home Rule Movement had brought a new life in the national movement.
- There was a revival of Swadeshi & Women joined in larger numbers.
- Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of linguistic states and education in the vernacular languages. He gave the slogan ‘Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it’.
- The Maharatta and Kesari of Tilak and Annie Besant’s New India, Commonwealth and Young India became the organs of the Home Rule movement
- The Muslim League also supported it.
- On 20 August 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State in England, made a declaration in the Parliament of England on British Government’s policy towards future political reforms in India.
- He promised the gradual development of self-governing institutions in India.
- This “August Declaration” led to the end of the Home Rule Movement.
August Declaration, 1917
- After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced which aimed at ‘increasing the association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire’. This came to be called the August Declaration.
- Was attributed to the Hindu-Muslim unity exhibited in the Lucknow Pact.
The Montague Chelmsford reforms or the Act of 1919 was based on this declaration.