- Born in 1721 & started his career as an soldier in Mysore army.
- Become the Sultan of Mysore after the death of Nanjaraj, who had usurped power reducing its king Chikka Krishna Raj of Wodeyar dynasty.
- Took steps to train his army on European lines & preferred infantry to horseman troops.
- Set up a modern artillery.
First Anglo Mysore War (1767 – 1769)
- Hyder Ali strengthened his army by including French soldiers into his service.
- In 1755, established modern arsenal in Dindigul with French help.
- Extended his territories by conquering many areas in South India including Bidnur, Sunda, Sera, Canara, & Malabar to gain access to Indian Ocean.
- Rapid rise fueled the jealousy of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad & the English.
- The Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad & the English, formed a triple alliance & declared war on Hyder Ali.
- By his diplomacy Hyder Ali cleverly won over the Marathas & the Nizam.
- But under the English General Smith, Hyder Ali was defeated at Changam & Tiruvannamalai in 1767.
- At the same time Tipu Sultan, son of Hyder Ali advanced towards Madras & the English were forced to enter into an agreement.
Results of First Mysore War
- Ended with the Treaty of Madras in 1769.
- Conquered territories during the war were restored to each other.
- English agreed to help Hyder Ali in case of an attack by his enemies, the Nizam & the Marathas.
Second Anglo Mysore War (1780 – 1784)
- Mysore was attacked by the Marathas in 1771. In violation of the Treaty of Madras, the English did not help Hyder Ali.
- This angered the Ali who wanted an opportunity to strike at the English.
- When Mahe, a French possession in the dominion of Hyder Ali was attacked by the English, he declared war on the English in 1780.
- Hyder formed a common front with the Nizam & the Marathas against the English.
- Hyder Ali defeated Colonel Braithowaite in Arcot & made the English surrender.
- Luckily for the English, Hyder Ali died in December 1782 & succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan who carried on the war & captured the Fort of Badnur in 1783.
- Sir Eyre Coote who led the English forces, ended inconclusively with the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784.
- Under this treaty both parties agreed to return the conquered land of each other.
Results Second Mysore War
- Ended with the treaty of Mangalore in 1784.
- Agreed to exchange the captured territories and war prisoners.
- Son of Hyder ali.
- Introduction of a new system of coinage, new scales of weights and measures.
- Improvisations in the fields of agriculture, trade and commerce.
- Abandonment of the custom of giving jagirs & reduction in the hereditary possessions of the poligars.
- Sent missions to France & Constantinople to manage some aid for the state.
- Training to army on European line; Arming the infantry with rifles.
- Attempt to establish a navy on modern line for which two dockyards were established.
- Collection of many books on diverse subjects & setting up a big library.
- Support to the French soldiers in setting up a Jacobin club in Serinagpatnam in 1797.
- Grant of funds for the repair of Sringeri Temple and installations of the image of Goddess Sharda.
Third Anglo Mysore War (1786 – 1793)
- From now English started improving their relationship with the Nizam & the Marathas.
- Tipu on the other hand improved his resources with the French help.
- He attacked Travancore in 1789, a friendly state of the English.
- Lord Cornwallis, Governor General of Bengal declare a war on Tipu in 1790.
- Ended with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1792.
Results of Third Anglo Mysore War
- According to treaty Tipu gave half of his kingdom to the English.
- In which English got Malabar, Coorg, Dindugal and Baramahal.
- Also compelled to pay a huge war indemnity of over 3 crore rupees & had to surrender two of his sons as sureties to the English until he paid the indemnity.
Fourth Anglo Mysore War (1799)
- Treaty of Srirangapatnam failed to bring peace between Tipu Sultan & the British.
- Tipu refused to accept the subsidiary alliance of Lord Wellesley & instead wanted to take his revenge on the English.
- Tipu Sent diplomats to Kabul, Constantinople, Arabia & France to get their support in 1799 but none helped.
- Finally he suffered defeat at the hands of General Stuart & General Harris.
- Wellesley himself besieged Srirangapatnam & Tipu Sultan died in battle.
Results of fourth Mysore War
- Tipu’s territories were divided between British & the Nizam of Hyderabad.
- A Prince of a royal family Wodeyar was installed on the Mysore throne, & the subsidry alliance signed.