First, Second, Third & Fourth Anglo – Mysore wars

Mysore warHyder Ali

  • Born in 1721 & started his career as an soldier in Mysore army.
  • Become the Sultan of Mysore after the death of Nanjaraj, who had usurped power reducing its king Chikka Krishna Raj of Wodeyar dynasty.
  • Took steps to train his army on European lines & preferred infantry to horseman troops.
  • Set up a modern artillery.

First Anglo Mysore War (1767 – 1769)

Causes

  • Hyder Ali strengthened his army by including French soldiers into his service.
  • In 1755, established modern arsenal in Dindigul with French help.
  • Extended his territories by conquering many areas in South India including Bidnur, Sunda, Sera, Canara, & Malabar to gain access to Indian Ocean.
  • Rapid rise fueled the jealousy of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad & the English.

Course

  • The Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad & the English, formed a triple alliance & declared war on Hyder Ali.
  • By his diplomacy Hyder Ali cleverly won over the Marathas & the Nizam.
  • But under the English General Smith, Hyder Ali was defeated at Changam & Tiruvannamalai in 1767.
  • At the same time Tipu Sultan, son of Hyder Ali advanced towards Madras & the English were forced to enter into an agreement.

Results of First Mysore War

  • Ended with the Treaty of Madras in 1769.
  • Conquered territories during the war were restored to each other.
  • English agreed to help Hyder Ali in case of an attack by his enemies, the Nizam & the Marathas.

Second Anglo Mysore War (1780 – 1784)

Causes

  • Mysore was attacked by the Marathas in 1771. In violation of the Treaty of Madras, the English did not help Hyder Ali.
  • This angered the Ali who wanted an opportunity to strike at the English.
  • When Mahe, a French possession in the dominion of Hyder Ali was attacked by the English, he declared war on the English in 1780.

Course

  • Hyder formed a common front with the Nizam & the Marathas against the English.
  • Hyder Ali defeated Colonel Braithowaite in Arcot & made the English surrender.
  • Luckily for the English, Hyder Ali died in December 1782 & succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan who carried on the war & captured the Fort of Badnur in 1783.
  • Sir Eyre Coote who led the English forces, ended inconclusively with the signing of the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784.
  • Under this treaty both parties agreed to return the conquered land of each other.

Results Second Mysore War

  • Ended with the treaty of Mangalore in 1784.
  • Agreed to exchange the captured territories and war prisoners.

Tipu Sultan

  • Son of Hyder ali.
  • Introduction of a new system of coinage, new scales of weights and measures.
  • Improvisations in the fields of agriculture, trade and commerce.
  • Abandonment of the custom of giving jagirs & reduction in the hereditary possessions of the poligars.
  • Sent missions to France & Constantinople to manage some aid for the state.
  • Training to army on European line; Arming the infantry with rifles.
  • Attempt to establish a navy on modern line for which two dockyards were established.
  • Collection of many books on diverse subjects & setting up a big library.
  • Support to the French soldiers in setting up a Jacobin club in Serinagpatnam in 1797.
  • Grant of funds for the repair of Sringeri Temple and installations of the image of Goddess Sharda.

Third Anglo Mysore War (1786 – 1793)

  • From now English started improving their relationship with the Nizam & the Marathas.
  • Tipu on the other hand improved his resources with the French help.
  • He attacked Travancore in 1789, a friendly state of the English.
  • Lord Cornwallis, Governor General of Bengal declare a war on Tipu in 1790.
  • Ended with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1792.

Results of Third Anglo Mysore War

  • According to treaty Tipu gave half of his kingdom to the English.
  • In which English got Malabar, Coorg, Dindugal and Baramahal.
  • Also compelled to pay a huge war indemnity of over 3 crore rupees & had to surrender two of his sons as sureties to the English until he paid the indemnity.

Fourth Anglo Mysore War (1799)

Causes

  • Treaty of Srirangapatnam failed to bring peace between Tipu Sultan & the British.
  • Tipu refused to accept the subsidiary alliance of Lord Wellesley & instead wanted to take his revenge on the English.

Course

  • Tipu Sent diplomats to Kabul, Constantinople, Arabia & France to get their support in 1799 but none helped.
  • Finally he suffered defeat at the hands of General Stuart & General Harris.
  • Wellesley himself besieged Srirangapatnam & Tipu Sultan died in battle.

Results of fourth Mysore War

  • Tipu’s territories were divided between British & the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • A Prince of a royal family Wodeyar was installed on the Mysore throne, & the subsidry alliance signed.
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