Ranjith Singh (1780 – 1836)
- Became the ruler of Punjab in 1799.
- Assumed the title Maharaja in 1801.
- In 1809 the British and Renjith Singh made the Treaty of Amritsar during the period of Lord Minto.
- In 1809 Shah Shuja the grand- son of Ahmedshah Abdali presented the Kohinoor diamond to Ranjith Singh.
- The death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in June 1839 was followed by political instability & rapid changed of government in the Punjab.
- Later Punjab was annexed to the British territories by Lord Dalhousie in 1849.
- Sir John Lawrence became the first Chief Commissioner of Punjab.
First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845-1846
- Decisive battle was fought at Sobraon in1846 & the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh Majithia were routed. English then crossed the Sutlej & captured the capital of Lahore.
- The Sikhs were defeated due to treachery & halfheartedness of their leaders.
- Ended with Treaty of Lahore in 1846.
- Another treaty was made with the Sikhs on 16th December, 1846, this treaty is known as Second Treaty of Lahore or the Treaty of Bhairowal.
Treaty of Lahore in 1846
- Territories lying to the south of the river Sutlej were given to the company
- Sikh committed to pay 1.5 crore rupees to the company as war indemnity.
- Rani Jindan Kaur was made the Regent of the State & Lal Singh as the Wazir of the Maharaja.
- Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the Resident of Lahore.
Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1848-1849
- Began in 1848 as the Sikhs were feeling humiliated due to their defeat in the first Anglo Sikh war. Immediate cause was the rebellion of Mulraj, Governor of Multan, against the company.
- Provided a chance to interfere in the affairs of Punjab to Dalhousie.
- The English & the Sikh forces fought at Ramnagar, Chillianwala and Gujarat.
- The battle at Gujarat under the command of Sir Charles Napier was decide.
- Punjab was annexed to the British dominion in March 1849.
- Dalip Singh, the minor son of Ranjit Singh, & his mother, Rani Jindan, were pensioned off & sent to England.
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