Colonial Architecture – Portuguese style
- They adapted to India the climatically appropriate Iberian galleried patio house & the Baroque churches of Goa.
- Portuguese used bricks as the main building material along with wooden roofs & stairs
- Se Cathedral & Arch of Conception of Goa were built in the typical Portuguese – Gothic style.
- St. Francis Church at Cochin in 1510 is believed to be the first church built by the Europeans in India.
- Fort of Castella de Aguanda near Mumbai and added fortifications to the Bassein fort built by Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, in 1532 AD.
- Bassein fort is famous for the Matriz (Cathedral of St. Joseph), the Corinthian pillared hall & the Porte da Mer (sea gate).
Colonial Architecture – French style
- Gave a distinct urban design to its settlement in Pondicherry by applying the Cartesian grid plans & classical architectural patterns.
- Church of Sacred Heart of Jesus (Eglise De Sacre Coeur De Jesus), Eglise de Notre Dame de Angesand, Eglise de Notre Dame de Lourdes at Pondicherry have a distinct French influence.
Colonial Architecture – British style
- British followed various architectural styles – Gothic, Imperial, Christian, English Renaissance & Victorian being the essentials.
- Britishers used Red sandstone & coarse limestone as the main building material
- Church of St. John at Calcutta (1787) inspired by St. Stephens Church at Walbrooks.
- St. Mary’s Church in Fort St. George in Chennai.
- Law Courts, Presidency College and Senate House of Chennai.
- Gateway of India in Mumbai, Maharaja’s Palace at Mysore & M.S.University &Lakshmi Villas Palace at Baroda.
- New Delhi – systematically planned city after made capital in 1911
- Constantia, a building erected by General Martin (British) at Lucknow, is the best specimen of Palladian Style in India
- Wittet designed the Gateway of India in Mumbai, borrowing several elements of Mughal style
- Sardar Ram Singh, a master builder of Punjab, designed the Central Museum & the Senate House at Lahore (in Pakistan)
- Victoria Terminus Station (Chhatrapati Shivaji station), Mumbai
- Designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, the structure became the symbol of Bombay
- Based on late medieval Italian models, the terminal was built over 10 years, starting in 1878
- An outstanding example of Victorian Gothic revival architecture in India
- Blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture
- Bombay city was labelled as the ‘Gothic City’
Victoria Memorial Hall, Kolkata
- Designed by William Emerson in late 19th century
- To perpetuate the memory of Queen Victoria in India
- Drew elements from the indigenous & Indo-Islamic architecture combined with the Gothic revival & Neo-Classical styles
Revival of Delhi
- Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
- Sir Edward Lutyens was made responsible for the overall plan of Delhi.
- He constructed India Gate & Rashtrapati Bhawan.
- Vice regal palace appeared with a huge dome on the lines of a Buddhist stupa,
- Represent some elements of Hindu ornamentation & Islamic symmetry
- Herbert Baker added South Block and North Block, which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan.
- Englishman Robert Tor Tussell built the Connaught Place.
Some Famous Architects of Modern India
- Known as the ‘architect of the poor‘.
- Merged the buildings with the environment and utilized locally available materials.
- To reduce the consumption of steel and cement, he introduced filler slab construction.
- While designing he gave more importance to ventilation & thermal comfort.
- A German Architect & was commissioned with instructions to stay clear of elements of British or Mughal Architecture
- Used local materials like red sand stone & lime which were easily available.
- Red sandstone buildings with white domes, with big courtyards and windows are main features.
- Known as ‘modern style of architecture’
- A French Architect
- Designed the city of Chandigarh on the pattern of well-ordered matrix.
- Conceived the Idea of sector as self-sufficient green belt & Designed regular grid system for fast moving traffic
- A Goan Architect & played pivotal role past independence.
- He placed special emphasis on prevailing resources, energy and climate as major determinants in the ordering of space.
- He did pioneer work in urban issues & low cost shelter in the third world.
- Example: Planning of Navi Mumbai, Kanchenjunga apartment, Mumbai, British Council building, New Delhi, etc.
Indo gothic style
- Also known as Indosarsenic style
- Hybrid of Mughal, Gothic & Hindu style.
- Elaborate of carge construction.
- Confirmed of advanced British structural engineering standards.
- Thinner walls
- Pointed arches
- Large windows
- Gucified gound plan of churches.
Ex:- St.Paul’s catherdal at Kolkata, Victoria, Lakshmi vilas & Gateway of India
Neo Roman style
- Also known as Neo classical style.
- Ex:- Rastrapathi bhavan, Parliament, Supreme Court,