Charter Act of 1813
- Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea & trade with China. This made the Company more of an administrative body.
- All Englishmen could trade in India subject to few restrictions.
- 1 lakh of rupees annually for the promotion of Indian education.
- Christian missionaries were also permitted to come to India & preach their religion.
Charter Act of 1833
- Company stopped to be a commercial agency in India & hereafter as the political agent for the Crown.
- The Governor-General of Fort William was hereafter called ‘the Governor- General of India’ & Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India.
- Administrative & financial powers were centralized in the hands of the Governor-General-in-Council.
- President of Board of Control became the minister for Indian affairs.
- A Law Member was appointed to the Governor-General’s Council & T. B. Macaulay was the first Law Member of the Governor- General-in-Council
- All vacancies in India were to be filled by competitive examinations. Thus throwing open to all the services irrespective of religion, place of birth, descent and colour.
- Slavery was abolished by the Act of 1833.
Charter Act of 1853
- Renewed the powers of the company & allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territories under British crown.
- Court of Directors was reduced from 24 to 18 of which were to be nominated by the Crown.
- law member was made full member of the Governor General’s Executive Council.
- Legislative functions were for the first time treated separate from Executive functions.
- Appointed a Law commission in England to examine reports & draft of Indian Law.
- Recruitment to the Civil Services was based on open annual competition examination (Not for Indians).
Government of India Act of 1858
- Passed by the Parliament of England & received royal assent on 2ndAugust 1858.
- East India Company’s rule ended & the Indian administration came under the direct control of the Crown.
- In England, the Court of Directors and Board of Control were abolished & In their place came the Secretary of State for India & India Council were established.
- The Secretary of State would be a member of the British cabinet & Sir Charles Wood was made the first Secretary of State for India.
- India Council consisting of 15 members would assist him.
- System of Dual government ended.
- The Governor General of India now called as the Viceroy of India & first Viceroy of India was Lord Canning.
- All the previous treaties were accepted and honored by the Act.
Indian Council Act of 1861
- Increased the Viceroy’s Executive Council members 4 to 5.
- 6 to 12 members added to the Executive Council for legislation & nominated by viceroy
- Viceroy’s Executive Council, which was so long composed of officials, would now include 6 or more than 6 non official members.
- Legislative Councils were also established in the provinces & additional members in the provinces was fixed between 4 to 8.
- From now onwards Indians involved in the law making process.
Indian Council Act of 1892
- It was the first achievement of the Indian National Congress.
- Increased the “additional members” in the Central Legislative Council not < 10 & not > 16 & also increased the non-officials to 6 & officials to 10.
- Members were allowed to discuss the budget & criticize the financial policy of the government.
- In the provinces also the no. of additional members was increased with additional powers.
- Constitutional developments from 1750 to 1800
- Constitutional developments from 1900 to 1950
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