Carnatic music

  • Tamil classic of the 2nd century.
  • Silappadhikaram contains a vivid description of the music of that period.
  • The tolkappiyam, kalladam & the contributions of the saivite and vaishnavite saints of the 7th & 8th centuries also serve as resource material for studying musical history.
  • Flourished in deogiri the capital city of the yadavas in the middle ages.
  • The entire cultural life of the city took shelter in the carnatic empire of vijayanagar under the reign of krishnadevaraya. Thereafter, the music of south india came to be known as carnatic music.
  • After Purandaradasa, Tallapakam, Annamacharya, Narayana tirtha, Bhadrachalam Ramdasu & kshetranja made contributions to the wealth of compositions.
  • Outstanding feature is its raga system & highly developed and intricate tala system.Carnatic music

Birth of the musical trinity – Tyagaraja, Muthuswami dikshitar & Syama sastri – at tiruvarur between the years 1750 to 1850.


  • Simplest type of composition.
  • Taught to beginners of music, the gitam is very simple in construction, with an easy.
  • Melodious flow of music.


  • Very much like the gitam in musical structure.
  • Arrangement, the suladis are of a higher standard than the gitam.


  • A beautiful creation of musical craftsmanship of a high order, combining in itself all the characteristic features of the raga in which it is Composed.
  • Practice in varnam singing helps a musician to attain mastery in presentation & command over raga, tala and bhava.


  • Learnt after a course in gitams.
  • More complicated than the gitas, the svarajati paves the way for the learning of the varnams.
  • Theme is either devotional, heroic or amorous.


  • Very similar to the svarajati in musical structure, this form- jatisvaram – has no sahitya or words.
  • The piece is sung with solfa syllables only.


  • Had its birth about the latter half of the 14th century.
  • It is valued for the devotional content of the sahitya.
  • Clothed in simple music, the kirtanam abounds in bhakti bhava.
  • It is suited for congregational singing as well as individual presentation.


  • A development from the kirtana.
  • It is a highly evolved musical form.
  • The highest limit of aesthetic excellence is reached in the kriti composition.
  • The raga bhava is brought out in all the rich and varied colours in this form.


  • Scholarly compositions in telegu & tamil.
  • Though they are composed mainly as dance forms, they are also sung in concerts, on account of their musical excellence & aesthetic appeal.
  • The music is slow-moving & dignified.


  • Composition belonging to the sphere of light classical music.
  • Sung both in concert programmes & dance concerts, the javalis are popular because of the attractive melodies in which they are composed.
  • In contrast to the padas which portray divine love, javalis are songs which are sensuous in concept and spirit.


  • Corresponding to the tarana of hindustani music, is a short and crisp form.
  • It is mainly a dance form, but on account of its brisk and attractive music, it sometimes finds a place in music concerts as a conclusion piece.


  • Most important branch of creative music.
  • Branch of manodharma sangeeta, that the musician has ample opportunities of displaying his or her creative talents, imaginative skill, & musical intelligence.


  • A branch of raga alapana in madhyamakala or medium speed.
  • There is perceptible rhythm in this.
  • The rhythmical flow of music, flowing in fascinating patterns, makes tanam singing the most captivating part of raga exposition.

Musical instruments of india

Main categories on the basis of how sound is produced.

1. Taal vadya

  • Chordophones; stringed instruments
  • Ex:- Guitar, Veena, Sitar, Santum, Piano & Hormonium etc…Indian music

2. Sushira vadya

  • Aerophones; wind instruments
  • Flute, Whistle, Sexaphone, Nadeshswaram & Pungi etc…carnatic music

3. Avanaddha vadya

  • Membranophones; percussion instruments
  • Have to strike it to generate sound.
  • Tabla, Drum, Dhol & Longo etc…1-membranophone

4. Ghana vadya

  • Idiophones; solid instruments.
  • Ghunglu, Dandiya, matlu & Jal tarang etc…..idiophonees

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