In India 4 types of calendars followed
- Vikram Samvat
- Saka Samvat
- Hijra calender
- Gregorian calendar
- Date back to 57 BC by king Vikramaditya to mark his victory over the saka rulers
- That means 57 B.C = Zero year
- It is a Lunar calender i.e based on movement of moon
- It has 12 months & each month divided into 2 phases.
- Shuklapaksha (15 days) – Starts new moon & ends full moon
- Krishnapaksha (15 days) – Starts full moon & ends new moon
- Month begins with a ‘dark half’
- There are 354 days in a year
- Hence every 3rd & 5th year in a cycle of 5 years has 13 months – Adhik mass
- Zero year 78 AD
- Started by Saka ruler to mark victory over Kushsans
- 365 days
- Also known as ‘Indian national calendar’ introduced in 1957 based on the traditional Hindu calendars
There are 12 months in Hindu lunar calendar
- Bhādrapada, Bhādra or Proṣṭhapada
- Agrahāyaṇa, Mārgaśīrṣa
Purshottam maas is an extra month or thirteen in the Hindu calendar.
- The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
- Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the seasons.
- With an annual drift of 10 or 11 days, the seasonal relation repeats about every 33 Islamic years (every 32 solar years).
- It is used to date events in many Muslim countries (concurrently with the Gregorian calendar).
- Also used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper days on which to observe the annual fast (Ramadan), to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals.
- The first year was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred.
- Used throughout most of the world & also known as “Universal calendar”
- It began to be used from 1582.
- It replaced the previous Julian calendar because the Julian Calendar had an error: it added a leap year (with an extra day every four years) with no exceptions.
- The length of the Julian year was exactly 365.25 days (365 days and 6 hours), but the actual time it takes for the Earth to go around the Sun once is closer to 365.2425 days (about 365 days, 5 hours and 49 minutes).
This difference is about eleven minutes each year.