There were a total of 14 Sultans ruling over this kingdom. Among them, Alauddin Bahman Shah, Muhammad Shah I, Firoz Shah and Ahmed Shah Al Wali Bahmani were important.
Original name was Zafar Khan & the founder of the Bahmani sultanate.
Acccording to a popular legend narrated by Ferishta, he had an original name of Hasan Gangu and worked for a Brahmin master called Gangu.
Began his career as a general serving under the Muhammad bin Tughluq & made governor.
Later in 1347 he was made commander of an army in Daulatabad.
After death of Ghori he set up the Bahmani Kingdom with its headquarters at Ahsanabad (Gulbarga).
Muhammad Shah I ( 1358–1377)
His reign was marked by a series of wars between his kingdom and 2 neighboring kingdoms, the Vijayanagara and the Warangal under Kapaya Nayaka.
He died in 1375 from drinking too much.
Tajud-Din Firoz Shah (1397 to 1422)
He married to Deva Raya’s daughter.
He inducted a large number of Hindus into his administration.
Firuz Shah paid much attention to the ports Chaul and Dhabol, which attracted trade ships from the Persian Gulf and Red Sea.
He knows and can carry translation in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi, Bengali and many other languages.
Ahmed Shah Al Wali
He brought artisans from Iran, including the metal-worker Abdulla-bin-Kaiser, who was the master of Bidriware, the inlaying of zinc alloy with silver and gold.
Ahmed Shah’s, and his empress’s, tomb is located in Ashtur village, Bidar District, and is the subject of an annual urs, or anniversary of death festival.
The tomb of the Bahmani King Ahmed Shah Al Wali is a place of worship visited by Hindus and Muslims, and a centre of communal harmony.
Mahmud Gawan of Bahmani
The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the guidance of Mahmud Gawan.
He was a Persian merchant & came to India & Slowly he became the chief minister due to his personal qualities & remained loyal to the kingdom.
After the execution of Gawan, the Bahmani kingdom began to decline.
By the year 1526, the Bahmani kingdom had disintegrated into 5 independent sultanates.
1.Adilshahi Kingdom of Bijapur : Founded by Yusuf Adil Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686.
2. Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar : Founded by Malik Ahmad. It was annexed by the Mughals in 1636.
3. Imadshahi Kingdom of Berar : Founded by Fateh Ullah Imad Shah. It was annexed by Ahmednagar in 1574.
4. Qutub shahi Kingdom of Golconda : Founded by Qutub Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687.
5. Baridshahi Kingdom of Bidar : Founded by Amir AH Barid. It was annexed by Bijapur in 1618 – 19.
Socio – economic conditions:
- Agriculture – main revenue of the state.
- Nobles in the Bahmani Kingdom were classified into 2 categories, Deccanis (old comers) and the Afaquis (new comers).
- Mahmud Gawan was a minister in Bahmani Empire who expanded and extended the Bahmani Kingdom rapidly.
- He was categorized as Afaqui & hence it was difficult for him to win the trust and confidence of the Deccanis.
- They invited architects from Persia, Turkey, and Arabia and blended it with local styles.
- Gol Gumbaz (the world’s largest dome) and Charminar located at Hyderabad are the world famous examples of Bahmani architecture.
- Left an important heritage of Indo-Islamic art, language, and spread of Islamic tradition in South India.
- Hazrat Banda Nawaz (1321 – 1422 CE) the great Sufi saint was patronized by the Bahamani kings and his Dargah of Gulbarga is a place of pilgrimage for Hindus and Muslims alike.
Culture of Bahmani sultanate
- Later rulers of the dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman, the mythological figure of Greater Iranian legend and lore.
- They patronized Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in that language and composed its literature in that language.
- Craftsman of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.