Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527) Socio-economic, architecture & Culture

There were a total of 14 Sultans ruling over this kingdom. Among them, Alauddin Bahman Shah, Muhammad Shah I, Firoz Shah and Ahmed Shah Al Wali Bahmani were important.

bahmani-sultanate-map-ias-tspscAlaudin Bahmani Shah ( 1347 – 1358)

  • Original name was Zafar Khan & the founder of the Bahmani sultanate.

  • Acccording to a popular legend narrated by Ferishta, he had an original name of Hasan Gangu and worked for a Brahmin master called Gangu.

  • Began his career as a general serving under the Muhammad bin Tughluq & made governor.

  • Later in 1347 he was made commander of an army in Daulatabad.

  • After death of Ghori he set up the Bahmani Kingdom with its headquarters at Ahsanabad (Gulbarga).

Muhammad Shah I ( 1358–1377)

  • His reign was marked by a series of wars between his kingdom and 2 neighboring kingdoms, the Vijayanagara and the Warangal under Kapaya Nayaka.

  • He died in 1375 from drinking too much.

Tajud-Din Firoz Shah (1397 to 1422)

  • He married to Deva Raya’s daughter.

  • He inducted a large number of Hindus into his administration.

  • Firuz Shah paid much attention to the ports Chaul and Dhabol, which attracted trade ships from the Persian Gulf and Red Sea.

  • He knows and can carry translation in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi, Bengali and many other languages.

Ahmed Shah Al Wali

  • He brought artisans from Iran, including the metal-worker Abdulla-bin-Kaiser, who was the master of Bidriware, the inlaying of zinc alloy with silver and gold.

  • Ahmed Shah’s, and his empress’s, tomb is located in Ashtur village, Bidar District, and is the subject of an annual urs, or anniversary of death festival.

  • The tomb of the Bahmani King Ahmed Shah Al Wali is a place of worship visited by Hindus and Muslims, and a centre of communal harmony.

Mahmud Gawan of Bahmani

  • The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak under the guidance of Mahmud Gawan.

  • He was a Persian merchant & came to India & Slowly he became the chief minister due to his personal qualities & remained loyal to the kingdom.

  • After the execution of Gawan, the Bahmani kingdom began to decline.

  • By the year 1526, the Bahmani kingdom had disintegrated into 5 independent sultanates.

1.Adilshahi Kingdom of Bijapur : Founded by Yusuf Adil Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686.

2. Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar : Founded by Malik Ahmad. It was annexed by the Mughals in 1636.

3. Imadshahi Kingdom of Berar : Founded by Fateh Ullah Imad Shah. It was annexed by Ahmednagar in 1574.

4. Qutub shahi Kingdom of Golconda : Founded by Qutub Shah. It was annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687.

5. Baridshahi Kingdom of Bidar : Founded by Amir AH Barid. It was annexed by Bijapur in 1618 – 19.

Socio – economic conditions:

  • Agriculture – main revenue of the state.
  • Nobles in the Bahmani Kingdom were classified into 2 categories, Deccanis (old comers) and the Afaquis (new comers).
  • Mahmud Gawan was a minister in Bahmani Empire who expanded and extended the Bahmani Kingdom rapidly.
  • He was categorized as Afaqui & hence it was difficult for him to win the trust and confidence of the Deccanis.

Architecture of Bahmani sultanateArchitecture of Bahmani sultanate

  • They invited architects from Persia, Turkey, and Arabia and blended it with local styles.
  • Gol Gumbaz (the world’s largest dome) and Charminar located at Hyderabad are the world famous examples of Bahmani architecture.
  • Left an important heritage of Indo-Islamic art, language, and spread of Islamic tradition in South India.
  • Hazrat Banda Nawaz (1321 – 1422 CE) the great Sufi saint was patronized by the Bahamani kings and his Dargah of Gulbarga is a place of pilgrimage for Hindus and Muslims alike.

Culture of Bahmani sultanate

  • Later rulers of the dynasty believed that they descended from Bahman, the mythological figure of Greater Iranian legend and lore.
  • They patronized Persian language, culture and literature, and some members of the dynasty became well-versed in that language and composed its literature in that language.
  • Craftsman of Bidar were so famed for their inlay work on copper and silver that it came to be known as Bidri.

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